However, several students noted in a retrospective interview that they favored the second source because the eyewitness testimony in particular broad-. The authors of the study concluded that even young students such as these fifth-graders appeared to understand the importance of perspective in considering past events, as well as to demonstrate some nascent capacity to judge the validity and reliability of sources, all despite not having been taught to do this explicitly.
They recommended that students be given more opportunities to practice historical investigation themselves as a way of building their historical thinking capabilities and enhancing their understanding of both the past and the nature of history as subject matter and academic discipline. In a related study, Barton spent a year observing in a fourthgrade and a fifth-grade classroom and exploring, among other things, how these students dealt with historical evidence as they learned about Kentucky state history and U. He concluded that the students demonstrated some significant strengths in understanding the reliability of sources but also displayed a reluctance to use the evidence to draw conclusions about the past.
He noted that students often were able to critically assess the evidence they examined but seldom did so spontaneously, needing to be prompted in interview settings to do so. As in the preceding study, Barton observed that the students had little practice drawing conclusions based on evidence, which may have accounted for their reluctance.
He concluded that his data demonstrated that the fourth- and fifth-graders appeared to be ready to handle historical sources as evidence and could, if asked, use it to render interpretations and draw conclusions. Therefore, he recommended that history teachers provide students with clear opportunities to wrestle with historical sources, much as seasoned historical investigators do, and assist them in clarifying the status of those sources and the types of inferences and conclusions that could be drawn from them.
Based on their data, the researchers noted that there was no reason to let historys chronological ordering and periodization structure interfere with teaching even 7- and 8-year-olds how to reason historically. The book, as the title suggests, champions the idea of practicing history. It contains a wide variety of helpful ideas on how to teach young children to investigate the past, using the cognitive tools experts rely on. British researchers also have investigated the progression of childrens historical thinking in England e. Students there get a variety of opportunities to investigate history much earlier in school than their American counterparts, largely because of fundamental differences in how their respective history curricula are structured.
As a result, these studies document that children in Great Britain tend to be more astute at investigating the past using staples of historical thinking at earlier ages. Extrapolating from these studies of progression in historical thinking among students in England points toward realizing that American children likely would show the same propensities as the British children if they were given investigative opportunities in classrooms with knowledgeable teachers to assist them.
In Chapter 6, I say more about extrapolating from this British research to children in the United States and about important cautions required in doing so. The Futility of Teaching History as a Grocery List The research work on historical cognition has been spurred in part by the rather dismal results students attain on tests that measure their knowledge of historical details and events; that is, their ability to recall historys grocery list.
Authors such as Ravitch and Finn repeatedly bemoan the fact that American students are egregiously remiss in being able to recall their nations history. In an attempt to understand how children, adults, and experts think about history as a means of further understanding why they sometimes do not recall details very well, studies indicate that making sense of the past requires thought that is only partially based on recall.
In fact, historians who were not expert in the particular historical period they were asked to examine still made good sense out of documents and evidence in front of them because they knew how to think historically in the ways I described earlier. Even without much background knowledge to recall and draw on in sorting out details about the period in question, these historians were not significantly hampered in their efforts to piece together a fairly sophisticated understanding of events see Wineburg, It turns out that being able to think historically and practice doing history is more crucial to making sense of the past than having memorized a grocery list of historical details.
In Search of America's Past: Learning to Read History in Elementary School
Understanding historical events demands the construction of explanatory contextualized interpretations that can be used as arbiters in judging historical sources. A grocery list may be helpful and perhaps necessary, but it is insufficient. Without a road map, so to speak, constructed via deliberate cognitive steps through evidentiary sources as a means of making all the details cohere, you end up where a frustrated eighth-grader once. These cognitive steps involve investigating the past and practicing deliberative acts of historical thinking. This line of research has helped us see why children and, as some have noted, adults also often do poorly when they are asked to read a history textbook, commit its one damn thing after another to memory, and then replay it all on the test.
As such, the studies offer a prima facie challenge to those who would make history merely the study of someone elses heritage. In a related vein, a recent line of research on how students make judgments about historically significant events and persons demonstrates that Black and White students in U. White students often pushed traditional White heritage heroes to the top of the list e. Black students, stating how mindful they were of a legacy of repression suffered at the hands of such heroes, elevated people such as Dr. Martin Luther King to the top of their lists of those most important.
One can conclude from these studies that, despite curricular and accountability efforts to homogenize students understanding by teaching them Anglo American heritage myths and heroes, students still construct their own interpretations based on what they perceive to be their own heritage. How a student interprets the past appears dependent on identity factors such as class, race, ethnicity, and gender.
Moral proclamations about the importance of teaching the grocery list of our civilizations common cultural heritage and about the triumphs of its heroes seem particularly naive in the light of such work. These studies also may explain why some students, who do not buy into the traditional common culture heritage myths, do poorly on history tests that measure their recall of them. It turns out that repeatedly overfilling the gas tank simply will not make a car with worn-out brakes stop any better.
Repairs must address the source of the problem. National Standards History education curriculum reform groups have also weighed in on what studying history in the classroom ought to look like. For instance, the National Standards for United States History include a detailed section on historical thinking and analysis that appears to take its cue from the empirical research on historical thinking and understanding.
Chapter 2 of the document pp. Standard 3Historical Analysis and Interpretationopens by commenting on the problems associated with the typical approach to teaching history of having students seek one right answer found in the history textbook. The Standards note: These problems are deeply rooted in the conventional ways in which textbooks have presented history: a succession of facts marching straight to a settled outcome.
To overcome these problems requires the use of more than one source: of history books other than textbooks and a rich variety of historical documents and artifacts that present alternative voices, accounts, and interpretations or perspectives on the past. Much of the emphasis in Chapter 2 of the Standards and in the document as a whole is placed on being able to do history, much as is done by historians themselves. The section on historical analysis and interpretation lays out 10 substandards see p. Historical knowledgethe ostensible factsis given somewhat lower-order status and pressed into the service of historical thinking, analysis, and interpretation.
The individual content standards a page Chapter 3 are replete with historical-thinking language in what they would require of students. The world history standards, also authored at the Center, read much the way as the United States history standards do, only the content examples are obviously broader. It opens by borrowing language and intent from the Standards.
It then reiterates the importance of emphasizing the development of historical thinking in learners and provides four brief essays that focus on topics such as engaging students in inquiry experiences, using primary sources, constructing historical arguments, and doing book reviews as historians frequently do. The remaining portion of the volume is devoted to practical advice about investigating history in the classroom using a variety of sources and researchbased thinking strategies arranged by common periodization eras. The book. Lined up on one side are those who continue to see history as a repository of true heritage mythologieswhat historian Michael Kammen once called stabilized historythat children should be committing to memory.
This is, in the case of the United States as a nation, the quintessential story of our history. It is largely the Anglocentric political, economic, and military heritage children should acquire if they are to enter ranks of educated American citizens, or so the argument goes e. The standard history textbook serves as the central vehicle by which this stabilized story is transmitted. And besides, proponents of this approach maintain, children simply are not yet intellectually equipped to handle the intricacies and machinations involved in investigating the past themselves, even if they wanted to.
Here, the sociocultural and political use of historythat is, our common heritageholds sway, underwritten and rationalized by a deficit model of childrens capacity to learn a subject matter and a typical public perception that history and heritage are indistinguishable. Here the challenge is about controlling what is taught in history classes, largely in service of politically inspired and partisan accountability models applied to schools that are frequently supported by pitched rhetoric about higher achievement standards.
On another side are a group of educational reformers and researchers and likely a number of ambitious history teachers who draw heavily from a growing body of studies on childrens and adults understandings of history, the ways they make sense of it, and their capacity to engage in historical investigation. They claim 1 that this empirical research repeatedly calls into question the notion that children are not intellectually ready to investigate history themselves; 2 that the teaching of whoevers heritage demonstrates partisanship, is excessive and breeds fractiousness along political lines, teaches little about history, and must be construed as largely distinct from history; and 3 that the research studies systematically account for why students often do so poorly on tests that ask them to do little more than recall mythologies, only some of which they trust.
Proponents then offer a more efficacious replacement model for learning the subject. These educational reformers and researchers argue that if we are interested in actually having students understand history, we have to. They also insist by implication that the mere capacity to recall a bag full of historical details is a lower-status form of knowledge compared to being able to reason with and argue from a deep understanding of history as a subject matter. Pressing on the former to the exclusion of the latter sells children short. The challenge engaged by this group is to tackle the obstacles that limit childrens learning opportunities in history classrooms.
The history education reformers and researchers face an uphill battle. Those who seek to control the curriculum, keeping history essentially the study of our heritage found in textbooks, are supported by the weight of a long tradition in public schools, as the Standards authors allude and as historians Tyack and Tobin note. In many places this tradition is currently buoyed by the rush to implement cheap standardized tests that drive the school accountability movement. For reformers and researchers, this situation is exacerbated by the general absence of empirical research studies that systematically document how young children can be taught to practice history, how they might deal with such historical investigations in actual classroom contexts, and what they actually learn as a result.
I have no doubt that there are a number of ambitious history teachers who teach their students how to investigate the past, how to read and evaluate primary and secondary sources, make interpretations, and build historical arguments for themselves. I also have no doubt that these teachers have learned of the compelling benefits such teaching practices provide their students.
What I am maintaining is that we have few design experiments Brown, in the research literature that take the history reform recommendations seriously and attempt to demonstrate the educational efficacy, robustness, and possible limitations of systematically teaching young children to investigate history, particularly American history. The closest that we have come is an intriguing study by Wilson , who taught third-graders about Michigan history.
However, her efforts focused as much, perhaps more so, on geographical thinking and spatial investigation as they did on historical thinking and practicing history. We also have an anecdotal account of teaching youngsters to use primary source documents Edinger, and an impressionistic view of investigating history in the secondary classroom Kobrin, It is in this apparent void and amid the challenges I have noted that I conceptualized the project I describe in the chapters that follow.
This was classroom 23 of a large elementary school in a very large school district in a Mid-Atlantic state. The school district abutted a large city, but in many ways that urban core had spread its sociocultural net beyond its political and geographic boundaries to encompass this school. The children in front of me represented a racial and ethnic rainbow. Standing at the front and taking a quick count, I could not discern the existence of a racial or ethnic majority.
Many of the students qualified for the free- or reduced-cost-lunch program. A couple of them spoke only rough versions of English, and one student was a recent immigrant from Peru. Her native language was Spanish, and she was still struggling mightily as an English reader. One boy was physically much larger than any of his classmates. It turned out that he had been held back two grades. Another, much smaller, boy had recently been placed on Ritalin. His body had not yet adjusted to the medication, so he often looked barely awake.
I was there to teach all of them American history. They were smiling at me and I caught myself smiling back at them, despite remembering the words of one of my former teacher educators: Dont grin until Januaryperiod! Well, it was January, I thought. This was a new experience for me. I had taught middle and high school American and world history in departmentalized arrangements in Colorado and Michigan, but never fifth grade. The students wanted to know who I was.
They were fairly certain I was not a student intern from the local university, many of whom had taught these students in previous years. But they were asking to be sure. I told them that I was a teacher at that local university that was responsible for educating new teachers. I was not an intern, I assured them. Rather, I was the teacher who taught the teacher interns who had taught them, and now, because I was interested in doing so, I was there to teach them American history.
I pointed out that I had been a school history teacher before but that I went back to gradu I explained that I had spent the better part of the preceding 9 years doing research in history classrooms, observing and talking with history teachers, interviewing studentsmany of them their ageabout what they were learning or not , and writing articles about it for research journals. The more I talked, the more restless and itchy they became. It turned out what they really wanted to know was why I was there to teach them American history.
Brittney blurted this out as I paused between sentences. Other childrens heads nodded, approving the question. Several said, Yeah, why? This I thought was a wonderful question, but one I was not fully prepared to address at that point, primarily because, as with much about teaching, I was not expecting it. I thought for a moment and then observed that I was there to put my money where my mouth was, so to speak. They looked on, quizzically. Sensing that they wanted more, I explained that, in articles I had written, I had made a number of statements about how I thought history should be taught to young kids like them.
I was there to test those ideas. They were my guinea pigs. I am not sure they knew quite what to think of that prospect, but being excited fifthgraders, eager for new experiences at least ones that did not hurt too much , they welcomed me. Just like that, the honeymoonif you can call it thatwas over; the hard work began. In this brief recounting of my introduction to the fifth-graders in room 23, I believe I make my allegiances quite clear.
My stake in this effort to explore the teaching and learning of history is tied to those who would change the experience, to align it more closely with the practice of investigating history with children. For my part, I was and still am convinced that children as young as fourth and fifth gradeperhaps even younger can learn how to investigate the past themselves and benefit from the higherstatus substantive and procedural knowledge such a practice can confer upon children.
However, as I noted in the last chapter, the literature is largely devoid of design experiments Brown, that systematically study the teaching of historical thinking and investigation and what children learn and do not learn as a result. I was in room 23 to conduct one such study. In several ways, it was a litmus test of my own research-based recommendations and, to the extent that mine were linked to reform documents such as the Standards for United States History NCHS, hereafter either Standards or National History Standards , a litmus test of them also.
At the moment I explained that I was putting my money where my mouth was, the daunting nature of the responsibility I was assuming finally dawned on me. Not only was I going to be their history teacher for. Was it an adequate theory? Would it fail me in this sort of classroom with students this young?
Partially fail? Fully collapse? I experienced a momentary flash of abject fear, much akin to what inexperienced intern teachers must face when they take over the class for the first time. It helped me appreciate again what they go through. However, what perhaps distinguished me from those green interns was having this rather well-honed small-t theory of historical thinking and learning I had developed over 13 years of teaching middle and high school students, and then having an opportunity to further refine it as a history education researcher for 9 years.
The theory should be quickly recognizable, embedded as it is in the research literature and reform recommendations discussed earlier. This is a theory about how those three pieces fit together in a classroom context in what Shulman calls pedagogical content knowledge.
Born largely out of teaching practice in combination with a level of disciplinary wisdom, this knowledge is a cluster of ideas a teacher holds about how to make a particular form of learning occur for students. It is not a grandiose capital-T theory such as quantum mechanics. Teachers possess many small-t theories about their teaching practices. For whatever reasons, perhaps the least of which is that they are seldom asked, teachers simply do not articulate them very often. In this study, I wanted to be as clear as I could about my theory of historical thinking and its origins, largely because my research design was intentionally putting it to the test.
As a history teacher, I was frequently uncomfortable with the idea that history was something that could be packaged in a fat textbook and insinuated into the heads of my students, falling as it seemed from the sky in official, reified form and descending mysteriously through my charges skull bones and into their cranial matter, form intact. My undergraduate degree in American history had taught me to be wary of singular accounts of the past, the so-called s consensus interpretations of political, economic, and military America.
My undergraduate subject-matter preparation involved reading and debating a variety of interpretations of the colonial period, the American Revolution, abolitionism, slavery, Recon-. My history professors instilled in me a profound respect for the thoroughly interpretive nature of historical scholarship. One professor was fond of summoning up and paraphrasing Voltaire and Nietzsche, noting that history is like a package of tricks the living play on the dead.
Several of my history professors also remarked how each generation was wont to write its own history and that revisionism could be seen as historical scholarships lifeblood. As I began my career as a history teacher, I found myself trying to assign readings that included everything but the textbook. I drew on the scholarship I had consumed as a college student.
I augmented with primary sources as frequently as I could which was not as often as I would have liked. Mirroring some of the actions of my history professors, I tried to stir discussion and debate by purposefully giving my students competing interpretations of events. The more raucous the disagreements, the better. This was where I could find the best competing source material. Over time, I built up a considerable storehouse of both primary and secondary sources.
As this collection grew, my use of the school-sanctioned textbook shrank to the point where my students almost never cracked the cover. This approach met with some success, but my studentsboth in middle and high schooloften resisted my efforts. They had done school long enough to be suspicious of teachers who suggested that there were multiple possible answers to questions they asked and sometimes no conclusive answers at all.
They were accustomed to hearing the multipleanswers bit, but being met instead with multiple-choice questions where only one answer counted. I tried to avoid those kinds of questions, relying more heavily on essay formats in which I asked students to take a position on a historical event we had debated in class and support their position by drawing on what we had read. Part of what sent me to graduate school was the creeping feeling that what I was doing was somehow incorrect pedagogically. Some of this was the result of my students resistance and some of this came in the wake of feeling perpetually guilty for not using that expensive textbook much.
A smaller part of it, but a pressing one nonetheless, revolved around the fatigue that followed my struggle to get my students to write well-supported essays and the sheer weight of grading them all year after year. I imagined that graduate school would either help me rationalize my approach and teach me how to do it more effectively and, with luck, efficiently or disparage what I was doing. It did neither. However, it did help me clarify my fledgling theory of how I was attempting to bring together teaching practice, a view of historical subject matter, and an understanding of student learning in my classroom.
Refining the Theory Through Research In many ways, although I only dimly knew it initially, the research agenda I undertook in graduate school and took along into my university position was designed to teach me about what I had been doing as a history teacher. Despite spending 9 years in other teachers classrooms, researching their teaching practices and exploring what their students were learning, this process did more for me in regard to sharpening and refining my theory of historical thinking than I suspect it ever did for the participants in my studies on this point, see Wolcott, I am greatly indebted to those teachers and students for having granted me that opportunity.
It, along with the extensive reading graduate study affords, pushed me to clarify how I was thinking about what I had been doing. At the point of beginning this fifth-grade classroom studyplus years after I first began teaching historythe theory of historical thinking that guided my practice looked something like the following. Children learning history develop deeper levels of historical understanding when they have opportunities to consciously use their prior knowledge and assumptions, regardless of how limited or naive.
The most direct and productive method of revealing and employing prior knowledge is through actual historical investigation. This demands that children learn investigative strategies. Paying attention solely to the products of others historians investigations into the past seldom assists children in acquiring a repertoire of such strategies. They need to practice what Davidson and Lytle call the art of historical detection themselves. To that end, they must be given clear, carefully guided opportunities to: Work with various forms of evidence and types of source material Deal with issues of interpretation, as contentious as they can often be Ask and arbitrate questions about the relative significance of events and the nature of historical agency Cultivate and use thoughtful, context-sensitive imagination to fill in gaps in evidence trails when they arise Children also must learn to construct detailed, evidence-supported arguments about the nature of events being investigated.
Specific strategic-knowledge dispositions necessary for the development of historical understanding include the capacity to: Build interpretations of historical events Understand the nature of different kinds of sources, their strengths and limitations Check and cross-check details and versions of events contained in the sources Judge the validity and reliability of sources in order to construct defensible interpretations Make sense of an authors position in the account being told Wineburg, , all while taking into conscious account the way learners are also imposing their own view on these matters as they engage in interpreting the evidence VanSledright, In short, the theory points toward employing investigative practices closely linked to the ones historians use in order to effectively build among students the cognitive capacity to understand what happened in the past.
The design for the study was predicated on the assumption that simply because we lack systematic classroom-based research studies that document this theory in practice with children as young as 10 and 11, there is no reason to believe that they are incapable of learning to think historically as so defined. As I stood in front of those fifth-graders on that January morning, these ideas swirled about in the back of my head. The ideas also helped me more specifically frame my pedagogical goals around the investigative approach that would define classroom activity with respect to historical study into early May.
I realized that in some sense I had come full circle: from theory born and tested initially in practice, to theory refined through research and analysis, back to theory tested by practice. Before describing my experiment translating this theory back into the classroom, let me say a little more about the setting in which this all occurred. And it was growing beyond its capacity, as the portable classrooms on the side of the building bore witness.
Two years earlier, almost the entire building had been leveled and then rebuilt in some-. As a result, the building felt completely new. Paint was fresh; the tile floors and lavatory walls sparkled; Internet outlets were available in each classroom. Shiny new Macintosh computers seemed to be everywhere. A trip through the front doors brought you to a large corridor atrium, with light streaming in from three sides. The school district of which Kendall is a part appeared to take education seriously. School board members and local politicians were relatively quick to spend on education.
As the district had become more diversified racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically, pressure had mounted to attend more diligently to students with special needs, creating tension along racial and ethnic lines in recent years. As I noted in Chapter 1, Kendall had many students with unique needs, given the urban-style neighborhoods and low-income housing developments in which they lived.
Kendalls student population was about as racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically heterogeneous as it could possibly be. Principally for that reason, the prospect of teaching American history to fifth-graders there held great fascination and intrigue for me. Would my theory of historical thinking and the investigative approach designed to enhance it work with students as diverse as these? How would my approach need to be tailored to meet the potentially wide range of differences I was likely to encounter? Room 23 Room 23 was like most of the other classrooms in the building.
It was large and amply supplied. Books filled a large set of shelves below broad windows along one entire side of the room. The standard chalkboard covered the front wall and whiteboard covered the back. Desks were standard fare, easy to move about into clusters so that students could work together as necessary. Two sets of storage cabinets were lined with a host of common teaching supplies.
A computer sat in one corner. It was connected to the Internet and by s-video link to a large, ceiling-mounted monitor that also housed a VCR. Overall, it was a warm, bright, cheerful room that seemed to say, Come in and learn here because thats what goes on in this place. Proctor, was an African American female who had been teaching for almost 20 years, most of them in this school.
I had known her for 7 years prior to the study. She had mentored a number of the teacher interns placed at Kendall for their practicum experiences. We had. She was a superb teacher and a superior mentor for the university students interning in her classroom. By virtue of her longevity at Kendall and her excellent teaching reputation, she also was seen as a leader in the school. What most distinguished her was the passion she demonstrated toward learning. Her approach to her students, the interns in her room, my presence and work with her, and her dealings with fellow teachers and administrators was characterized by an undying devotion to learning more about what it means to teach.
When I approached Proctor about the study and described the details, she welcomed me and the idea warmly. She indicated that her curiosity about the project was rather selfish: She might get an opportunity to learn something interesting about historical study by watching me teach. I demured, noting that I thought I would be struggling some of the time and needing to draw heavily on her classroom and pedagogical expertise, especially with regard to knowing students. I thought that her openness to having me present and her desire to learn from me while I learned from her would make for a good match.
She also believed so. This class of 23 fifth-graders in room 23 was one of four fifth-grade classes at Kendall. It was the smallest of the four, primarily because Proctor elected to take a larger number of the students with learning difficulties and behavioral issues. The deal she struck entailed a smaller class size in exchange for a higher number of individual student challenges. Two of the other three teachers were novices and untenured, still learning many of the rudiments of teaching.
The third of the three was a more seasoned veteran, but she had just that year moved to fifth grade from second grade and had very little experience with older students. Of the 23 students, 7 were African American, 7 were European American, 6 were Hispanic, and 3 were Asian American; 12 were girls and 11 were boys. The remainder were mostly Asian American; however, a small but growing percentage were recent immigrants from countries all over the world. It was approximately the same percentage in room Eight Primary Informants All 23 students served as sources for studying the influence of my investigative approach and theory of historical thinking.
However, to acquire a more in-depth understanding of what was occurring in the classroom and. Several criteria were employed in selecting these eight: 1. The students should represent a gender mix; thus four should be boys and four, girls. They should be representative of the racial and ethnic diversity within the class. Because historical study is so text-based, two should read somewhat above grade level, four roughly on grade level, and two somewhat below grade level, as determined by district criterionreferenced reading tests.
Alexandra was a very good reader, as defined by the high scores she received on the criterion-referenced standardized reading tests. She studied very diligently, was often overprepared for class, and seemed to suffer a mild case of overachievers anxiety. She was polite and gracious in class and in interview sessions, and incisive and precise in response to questions and classroom tasks. Ben was one of the most curious fifth-graders I have ever met. He was fascinated by the opportunities he had to explore primary sources and investigate the questions that were posed to such events as the Jamestown Starving Time in and the Boston Massacre.
His reading test scores pegged him as an average reader, reading on grade level or just a bit above. Candy was a warm, cheerful, energetic student who worked exhaustively to learn to read English effectively. Her oral English was broken but reasonably understandable. Students can also practice paraphrasing using a lesson on Timbuktu as a thriving Islamic center of culture. High School World History Resources for students, teachers, and parents. This course will introduce students to the major themes throughout world history beginning with the modern times of Renaissance and Enlightenment in Europe.
There are worksheets on the European Middle Ages , maps and pictures of ancient Greece , outlines and PowerPoints on imperialism , etc. Below is a sample breakdown of the Early Chinese Civilization chapter into a 5-day school week. High School Program Planning Guide 4 Welcome to that exciting time of year when you choose the courses you will take during the upcoming school year.
Westlake High School is committed to ensuring that all materials on this web site are accessible to students, staff, and the general public. Be sure to check out their research guides for history, health, criminal justice, and more. Many items can be used to teach basic skills that will be necessary for ninth through twelfth graders to master reading, writing, and spelling skills.
The curriculum aims to help students make connections from specific subject matter to historical patterns, and may be readily adapted to a variety of history programs. Reading activities include methods for assessing individual reading comprehension in a group setting, increasing student engagement before, during, and after reading, and getting students to share opinions about what they've read.
As usual, our teacher friends came through in force! If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. History is the most misunderstood subject and is used to manipulate people into war, harbor With school coming up just around the corner, it is important to have all the tools you might possibly need for the next school year. You deserve it! Learning about our history is more than collecting names, facts and dates.
By familiarizing yourself with trends in history as opposed to memorizing facts, you can get a 5 on the AP World History exam. Portal created for history teachers, students, and general history for academic reference purposes for school or university papers. Here are 20 to explore. The Vietman War Through Music - The one major goal of this lesson is to give students a better understanding of different points of view on such a catastrophic war.
This can be done in a variety of ways. School Radio Related Links Take world history in your stride High school history and political science teachers often assign classroom projects on the Cold War to help students understand tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union from the s High school reading provides an overview of world population history, current demographic trends, migration, and the concept of carrying capacity.
But as a complete heretic on the subject of history instruction, maybe I can add some outside-the-box ideas to the discussion In this PBS high school lesson students explore what it's like to be a teenager living today in an Islamic country in the Middle East. Also, try the UK site at www. Our Guides and Lesson Plans show teachers how to stress these messages and make them meaningful for young audiences.
Projects range from oral histories or prose with Web links to visual essays or exhibits. High schoolers take their history lessons up to the present. Introduce your middle- and high-school students to a supercharged social studies curriculum. High school courses for students, teachers, home-schoolers, and history lovers.
General websites for students. Websites for Middle School Students and Younger It seems like many of the educational sites around the web were created with either the elementary student or the college student in mind. Join us, learn about our 5 streams of content, and find out how to get involved.
Engaging Students with Learning Disabilities
Check it out and share your picks for the High School World History: Resources for Students, Teachers and Parents Studying world history provides important perspectives on the past and offers direction for the future. Spreading Our Wings and Preparing to Soar. A lesson plan from the NY Times. The high school curriculum is built to meet the needs and capabilities of every high school student and all our online high school programs help the student to find their own path to success. World History for Us All World History for Us All offers teaching units, lesson plans and resources for middle school and high school world history teachers.
World History Made Simple can be used as a survey course in world history or used in another social studies course. Guided Tour: World Book Encyclopedia. Our site contains thousands of individual pages covering all aspects of U. They then make a similar mark in the clay for the number counted and recorded. History digital subscriptions with seven issues arriving throughout the school year. Aug 29, These portal sites, specifically for World History, can lead you to websites of high quality. The Great Courses website has in-depth college-level lectures in video plus.
- Birds of Virginia: A Falcon Field Guide.
- Mr. Nussbaum - Educational Games, Activities, Resources for Kids Ages and Teacher Tools..
- Seals and Sealing Handbook.
- Selfish Sounds and Linguistic Evolution: A Darwinian Approach to Language Change;
Bridging World History Mr. Use the below code to display this badge proudly on your blog. Every resource you need, from Prehistory through to the modern world, all at. Students will examine the major concepts behind civilizations-- government, law, and religion. Membership is FREE and connects you to the leading online resource for American history teachers and students!
College Prep. History Websites for Students Top Picks list of 24 tools curated by Common Sense Education editors to find relevant and engaging edtech solutions for your classroom. Gale In Context: World History is a Gale database that covers the reliable reference, and multi-media content put this vast topic into context for students. For help in history class, the app provides world flags This page is designed to support the textbook "Short Lessons in World History," though this website has no official connection to the text, its authors, or its publisher.
Post them in the classroom, display them on an overhead, and distribute them to students to post in their class notebooks during the first few weeks of school. Many states require high school teachers to have majored in a subject area, such as science or history. You may want to only include topics students have New History and Social Science Standards to be implemented in the school year. However, older students would also benefit from the activities. A History Lesson: Critical Thinking.
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about World War II across 21 in-depth pages. The American History High School, Institute of Social Justice and Democracy, is committed to ensuring all students gain the social and academic skills needed to attend and graduate from an institution of higher learning.
Why Are Finland's Schools Successful? | Innovation | Smithsonian
Resources are free and include support for ELLs and students with World History high school Civic Life First available units are for middle school science. The related classroom resources allow educators to explore the periodic table in detail with their students—from its basic structure and properties to the sometimes volatile behavior of specific elements. Based on the pace of your course, you may need to adapt the lesson plan to fit your List of history websites for year old students, including games and activities and resources for teaches and parents.
You can also create and save customized document collections for use in your classroom. It is most valuable for its many, many very useful essays narrating all eras and most areas of world history. These programs help your student achieve academic success, earn an This edition of the Homeschooling Thru High School newsletter offers ideas and resources for teaching your teens good study habits and time management skills during high school.
Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Our World History teaching materials encompass everything for every grade, all divided up and organized by type. Encourage students to adapt the following resources to suit their needs. AHTR is home to a constantly evolving and collectively authored online repository of art history teaching content including, but not limited to, lesson plans, video introductions to museums, book reviews, image clusters, and classroom and museum activities.
Check with your art teacher to find additional resources, videos, prints, activities, etc. To know History is to know life. Studying world history provides important perspectives on the past and offers direction for the future. In AP World History students investigate signiicant events, individuals, developments, and processes in six historical periods from approximately B. Master your world history assignments with our step-by-step world history textbook solutions. Nearly four in 10 high school students believed, based on the headline,.
Students desiring to attend a Cal State or University of California college need to demonstrate proficiency in a variety of subjects prior to applying. Students can use this site to conduct research and read student-authored writing. This site offers help on evaluating the quality of information, knowing how to cite online material, and places to find reliable information on the Internet.
High School Courses. He is currently in his 7th year of teaching: six years as a middle school world Student Global Thinkers Website. One hundred years ago, in , the greatest conflict the world had ever seen up to that time achieved an armistice. If you experience difficulty with the accessibility of any webpages or documents, please request materials in an alternate format by contacting Sonja Gannfors at sgannfors conejousd.
Senior high school teachers and students may examine key historical events between to including European politics and the Depression. We have teaching resources for U. Students may select their own article, or teachers can print the article they wish to have the students These online educational videos for High School students and teachers enable high schoolers to study curriculum subjects using subtitled online education video with subtitles giving each high school student the option to learn by watching, listening to, or reading each presentation according to their preferred Learning Style.
According to my experience, these are the 10 most useful websites for geography students. Using Anne W. This is the second post in a series of posts dedicated entirely to educational apps to use with high school students. Harms is a World History Teacher with 26 years in the classroom.
Students Gale In Context: High School is a Gale database that provides students with cross-curricular and authoritative content to empower development critical thinking and problem solving skills. The World History curriculum is one of five Social Studies courses offered at the high school level. If your blog is one of the Top 75 Middle School Teacher blogs, you have the honour of displaying the following badge on your site. Feel free to buy either the History or the Literature, or both, or to mix-and-match with the History and Literature of other Sonlight courses. Dual-enrollment and college prep students will find the college resources quite useful.
John Green teaches you the history of the world in 42 episodes! Welcome to HistorySimulation. World History for Us All is a national collaboration of K teachers, collegiate instructors, and educational technology specialists. A resource center designed to help high school and college world history teachers and students locate, analyze, and learn from online primary sources and further their understanding of the complex nature of world history issues.
Interactive with access to live teachers. Our goal is to build students' knowledge of current events and strengthen their critical thinking skills. Big History Project is a free, online, and totally awesome social studies course that puts skills development and student engagement first. This lesson asks students to research immigration patterns from the late 's until now. The history of the Holocaust is complex and vast. Students must write often if they are going to learn to write well. All of the blogs listed below are maintained by high school teachers who post meaningful or entertaining content related to teaching on a regular basis.
In this lesson, students make a timeline of events that happened in their class. I believe it is important -- if we want kids and parents to want to drive 30 minutes to come here, we have to make them feel special. Social Studies Topics. This interactive map allows students to click on over 50 American cities to learn about their histories and attractions. This is an incredible map of the world that allows students to explore an interactive map of the world, or, play games testing their knowledge of the natio In International Pizza Delivery, users must delivery pizzas to all corners of the world using their latitude and longitude skills.
The object is to deliver In Coordinates, students learn latitude and longitude while learning t This interactive map allows students to learn all about the history and features of Australia and Oceania. Simply click and learn. This interactive map allows students to learn all about Italy's cities, landforms, landmarks, and places of interest by simply clicking on the points of th This is an interactive map of the Egypt. Students simply click on the points of the map to learn all about them. This incredible game allows students to explore North American birds.
There are two modes. Free coloring allows students to choose from any of 27 North Ame This interactive Amazon exhibit allows students to click and learn about the layers of the forest, the water cycle, the wildlife, and the products harveste This beautiful module allows students to click on any of six different sharks to learn about their life histories.
This beautiful e-book comes with incredible animations of 20 different North American birds of prey including the Bald and Golden Eagles, Peregrine and Pra This game allows students to mix and match the parts of six different insects to create their own superbug. Students can enter text to name their bug and t This activity is perfect for students studying rocks.
Simply click on a rock in the rock chart to learn all about it. Learn bout igneous rocks such as obsi This biography describes the entire life of Abraham Lincoln in seven easy-to-read, captivating pages! This is a brief biography on Susan B. This is a complete biography on George Washington Carver. This is a full biography on Apple Inc. This page tells all about the life and discoveries of Leonardo da Vinci. This is a full biography one of the most famous athletes of all-time - Michael Jordan. Go from house to house in this neighborhood full of haunted hous Why wait until Teacher Appreciation Week to honor your teacher?
Lunch Line is a fun and funny game in which students practice their fractions, decimals, and percentages ordering skills. Students must arrange the celeb This activity gives a list of colloquialisms for "groundhog" and other animals. It requires students to make up colloquialisms to two other animals of the This resource includes a historical passage and ten multiple choice questions.
It gives immediate feedback.
Teaching and Learning History
In addition, when you click the "listen" button The Market is an incredible application that allows students to choose and track shares of real companies over time in a simulated environment. Teachers ca This magical game requires students to find his or her long-lost lunchbox within the confines of a magical school. Students must visit the school's many cl This story tells the tale of a student who returns to school to retrieve her lunchbox. Instead, she encounters a big surprise and a secret teacher's lounge This hilarious story chronicles world history through the year desperate search for magical sausage patties, now used in school lunches!
Upgrade to MrN to access our entire library of incredible educational resources and teacher tools in an ad-free environment. If you like MrNussbaum. Order Ops - Online Game This innovative game requires students to save seven members of a Royal Family from prison by using their order of operation skills to build stairways lead Learn More.
The Multiplication Zombies of the Brittany Graveyard - Online Game The Zombies of the Brittany Graveyard have been a scourge upon the village for many years - terrifying those who wish to visit the graves of their loved on Spellerz - Customizable Online Spelling and Typing Game Spellerz is an application in which users can practice their spelling and typing. Collage World - Online This awesome resource allows students to make online collages featuring a continent of choice and its nations.