In both political entities, the state has retained a key role in the promotion and regulation of tourism, clearly defying liberal principals but also clearly not for redistributive purposes, but is done more in line with nationalist ideology. What is interesting is that Scandinavia here referring to Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark has had a very strong and sustained influence of social democratic parties following the Second World War.
The concept of social democracy was adopted by Scandinavian societies following the Second World War, leading to societies with very developed welfare state policies as while there was a noteworthy market economy functioning in each of the Scandinavian countries.
The concept of social democratic governance led to very strong governmental interventions into the economy, leading to very high income tax levels in all the Scandinavian states, with the intention to redistribute the wealth to the poorer strata of society. The concept of redistributing wealth to the poorer classes via all sorts of welfare including universal healthcare, free university education, and a myriad of other welfare benefits has made the Scandinavian countries some of the most equal countries in the world, according to most measures of inequalities within countries, although there is indication that there is a shift towards more inequality OECD, The social democratic ideal has largely been achieved throughout Scandinavia, where taxes remain staggeringly high and welfare benefits generous.
However, in terms of tourism, the states in Scandinavia have not been afraid of being involved in the regulation of and promotion of tourism. In all the countries, the government was fairly generous in funding NTOs and supporting all sorts of efforts to promote national tourism products. This was done largely via outright ownership of NTOs that would promote tourism abroad, gather data on tourism flows, and sponsor all sorts of activities to support and promote tourism.
The governments following the Second World War also held large shares of ownership in airlines either alone Icelandair, Finnair or working together in partnerships with other governments Scandinavian Air Systems. However, in recent years, there has been a gradual introduction of ideas that are more oriented with market needs, rather than social and political goals Webster et al. What this has meant in practice is that Scandinavian countries have moved towards having the state less involved in the promotion and marketing of tourism products, moving much of the responsibilities to firms that are privately owned.
The most radical example of this is in Finland, where the former government owned and controlled National Tourism Office was reduced in size greatly, with most of the promotion and marketing responsibilities being shifted to a private firm. In Norway in , the government consolidated several organisations into Innovation Norway, one of which was the Norwegian Tourist Board.
The Norwegian consolidation of tourism into another larger organisation was also followed by much more recent proposals by the government to privatise the Airport Express train.
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The general movement towards market-oriented solutions is a general movement in Scandinavia, suggestive that some of the more statist responses to the regulation of tourism are being abandoned. This movement away from statist involvement in the economy seems to be moving in tandem with a waning political hegemony that social democratic parties have in many Scandinavian countries.
The Liberal Democratic party of Japan has controlled the government of Japan almost continuously since the Second World War, with the exception of five years. Despite the name of the leading party in Japan, the party has been very stubborn in terms of controlling and managing the economy in Japan and tourism is no exception Webster et al. The Japanese National Tourism Organization, formed in , is an administrative arm of the government of Japan that deals with many aspects regarding the promotion of tourism in Japan and abroad.
One of the key elements in the regulation of tourism for Japan is the key role that the government plays in the control of the inflow of tourists Soshiroda, , in the marketing to tourists Uzama, , and in the tourism industry in Japan Zhang and McCornac, While the Japanese Government has been in control of a political party that is liberal in name, the presence of the state is omnipresent in the tourism industry, although the intention of policy is not a social democratic ideal redistributing wealth but seems to be more in line with a nationalist ideology, intending to create a stronger industry to be in line with building a stronger national economy.
China is a rather enigmatic country, as the Communist Party of China retains a monopoly on political power in the country while it has simultaneously relinquished a great deal of control over the economy. The prevailing current philosophy of the Communist Party developed out of the ideological struggles within the party in s and s.
The ideological problematic was that the Communist Party came to political power in a country that had largely avoided the development of a capitalist class. As a result, China has been largely enigmatic in that it has embraced capitalism while under strict control of the Communist Party.
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In terms of tourism, enigmatically, the government has retained a great deal of control over the tourism industry, even when the government has largely embraced the free market for many other economic activities. The China National Tourism Administration is a governmental authority that has considerable authority in terms of the regulation of tourism in China as well as performs research and marketing for the Chinese tourism product abroad Bao et al. Wang and Shu claim that Chinese tourism associations are more political and less marketing-oriented since they are government owned and are not operated independently in terms of marketing or management of the association members.
The authors state that there is no independent association due to the fact that no association in China can form an association without government approval and involvement. What is interesting about China is that while the government for several decades has embraced the free market, tourism has remained largely exempt from this and has retained a high level of governmental involvement and regulation, although it seems that the current government is also targeting foreign investors in recent years Wall Street Journal , , as the current leadership seems to be reflecting a certain amount of economic nationalism.
When Indonesia became independent following the Second World War and following the war with the Netherlands in its attempt to re-establish its control over Indonesia, the government of President Sukarno was rather typical of those countries that became independent following the Second World War. The government followed an authoritarian model while contending with a powerful Communist Party and military that threatened intervention in the political system. In terms of the economic policies of the government, the government operated largely upon mercantilist logic, with the government retaining a great deal of control and ownership of the industries and natural resources of the country.
However, that changed drastically in when President Suharto became installed as the Head of the Government. President Suharto, who served as the President until , oversaw a massive transition in the economy, moving towards liberalisation of the economy. He also played a key role in large-scale arrests and massacres of members of the Communist Party and suspected members of the party.
What is enigmatic is that Indonesia has an economy that is highly liberalised, although the Ministry of Tourism remains a fully state-owned enterprise Cole, So, it seems that while the government since the late s moved away from governmental control of the economy, tourism has remained a Cabinet-level ministry, showing the importance that tourism is perceived to have Sofield, The economic and social importance of tourism has long made it a tool for achieving political goals.
Furthermore, the existence of many stakeholders in tourism with countering interests has made it a highly politicised area of public debate. For example, being non-local residents, tourists are a lucrative target for taxation — it is politically convenient to levy taxes on non-voting non-residents e. However, tourist services are often subject to lower VAT tax and tax refunds in order to make the destination price competitive and attract more tourists e. Political ideologies differ on the basis of: who would be supported — the tourist companies conservatism, social democracy, liberalism or the tourists socialism ; and how would the support be provided — indirect support: elimination of tax and regulatory burden on tourist companies liberalism , provision of public assets and services needed to tourists and tourist companies conservatism, social democracy or direct support: vouchers for use of tourist services, subsidies for tourist companies socialism.
Additionally, tourism is used for promotion of political ideologies e.
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In the Russian Federation it has even been considered as the tool for quick economic and social integration of Crimean peninsula after its cessation from Ukraine in March Furthermore, extremist and fundamentalist groups might perceive foreign tourists as carriers of unwanted social and cultural influence which could make them targets for terrorist attacks. For the future we expect further politicisation of tourism.
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However, we think that governments would not adopt a one-size-fits-all ideology in dealing with tourism but they will use different mechanisms from the arsenals of different ideologies depending on the situation and their political convenience. This means that sometimes one government would provide tax breaks to big investors in tourism in order to decrease the unemployment, other times it would invest heavily in infrastructure, while in third cases it may provide incentives to local residents to undertake domestic trips.
Such situational pragmatic ideological approach by public authorities seems more probable as it is satisfies the interest of many stakeholders although not necessarily the interests of society as whole. A natural consequence of the politicisation of tourism is the tourism wars. They relate to the aggressive destination marketing and in general can be applied by both destinations and tourist generating countries. As discussed above, the transition of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea in March and the subsequent international economic and political sanction on the Russian Federation resulted in stimulation of domestic tourism and recommendations by the Russian officials to citizens not to travel to countries that support the sanctions BurgasNews , As Russian tourists contribute significantly to the economies of Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Bulgaria, Egypt and other countries, the governments and tourism enterprises in these countries worried about the expected plummeting numbers of tourist arrivals from Russia.
The reactions included: subsidising charter flights from Russia to Turkey socialdemocratic approach Vestnik Kavkaza, , simplified visa issue process for Russian tourists visiting Greece liberal approach Greek Travel Pages, , or even voices from Bulgarian tourism industry for compensation from the EU for missed revenues socialist approach News.
For the future we expect such tourist wars to continue and sometimes even worsen. They would be used by major tourist generating countries as a powerful economic tool to redirect tourist and financial flows from one inconvenient destination to another. Destinations that depend heavily on tourism to create employment for its citizens and for foreign exchange earnings would be highly vulnerable. Environmentalism has permeated the agenda of political parties, governments and NGOs.
Environmentalism has now received the qualities of a political doctrine per se — it is organised e. Greenpeace and other organisations , influences our daily life e. Borges et al. The outcome would be increased costs of tourist services, and probably, decreased affordability of tourist trips, but in exchange of better quality of the environment. In general, tourism would benefit from the greater role of environmentalism in the political system. However, environmentalism should not be hindrance to the economic development of local communities and the latter should not be put into the position to choose jobs or environment.
The political goal of achieving greater control on populations might lead to the use of tourism as a tool to introduce and spread faster the human radio-frequency identification RFID microchip implants Ivanov et al. Therefore, tourism would be the instrument through which governments to achieve higher goals — i.
We have already observed RFID human microchip implants used to access offices and use various appliances Reuters, and believe this tendency would continue in the future in larger scale. New nations find nationalism and domestic tourism as tools for nation-building. The heritisation, antiquisation and the glorification of the past become vital steps in the process. The new city centre of Skopje, the capital of the Republic of Macedonia, is a good example — the nationalist ideology and the aim of the political elite of the country creating a new nation and giving it past it could be proud of led to the erection of monuments disputed by Greece e.
Alexander the Great and Bulgaria e. King Samuil. Domestic tourism to these new places of national worship strengthens the sense of national identity of residents. We envision this heritisation process to continue in the foreseeable future due to the growth of heritage tourism demand in general and its sub-segments e. There are many things to be said with regards to how ideologies will play a role in the future. One of the major issues that will have to be contended with is the necessary friction between nationalism and liberalism.
While liberalism is by definition an internationalist movement, especially in its current neo-liberal embodiment, it faces all sorts of public and governmental resistance. The resistance is largely based upon the way in which populations cling to nation-states as a form of organisation, giving populations a sense of security.
Many states seem to already have retained control or partial control over tourism and have not allowed tourism to be at the mercy of the free market. This is especially interesting, as it illustrates that while liberalism and markets may be the stated mantra, the states in these cases, have maintained political organisations to deal with the industry. In the future, it seems that states will be more involved with the regulation of tourism, perhaps as a backlash to the neo-liberalism of recent decades. What is also interesting is the slow and partial retreat from social democracy in Scandinavia.
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While the states there have begun to increasingly embrace market-based principles, substantial government involvement in the economy and regulation of tourism still takes place. However, the reorganisation and partial retreat from strong governmental control, ownership, and regulation of tourism seems to go hand-in-hand with the general decline in the power of social democratic parties in Scandinavia.
Although much of the value system of social democracy is deeply engrained in Scandinavian populations, partial privatisations of tourism-related industries and the reorganisation of political institutions dealing with tourism are possible, although they do meet with some resistance. So, it seems that the slow decline of social democratic institutions relating to tourism in Scandinavia mirrors the general decline of social democratic parties in there, as well.
What is most interesting in this investigation is the question of liberalism and all the other ideologies that oppose it. With the global ascendance of liberalism, we see that there is resistance at all levels. The most interesting and most successful seems to be nationalism that rears its head and limits liberal forces. However, other non-liberal ideologies also have opportunities to counter liberal tourism, although nationalism and conservatism seem to be ideologies that have the best chances in terms of launching successful opposition, as they largely are able to work in conjunction with state forces to oppose liberalisation.
It is noteworthy that there are a number of states mentioned above that have stated their support for liberal policies and yet they retain strong institutions that have the potential for regulating tourism or do regulate tourism. In terms of future research, it would be good to survey political elites to look at how they envision the role of tourism in their countries and ask they what role that they feel that tourism could play in their country in future decades.
This would be interesting and useful work as it would entail asking leaders about their faith and reliance upon international tourism markets rather than the nation-level regulation of tourism. Surveys could also be conducted to determine whether these elites feel that tourism should be regulated, as the negative externalities may entail cultural or political threats.
Mapping out how political elites look at tourism and how it may threaten the political and cultural independence in countries would seem to be fruitful, especially if it entails delinking economic liberalisation with westernisation. Another key concern that should be considered is to look at how political ideologies impact upon security concerns and economic concerns. While in the present epoch, tourism is typically thought of as an economic vehicle to assist countries in increasing living standards and does not have an ideological component, the ideological preferences of elites and state institutions also play a role.
Much a similar case could be made in discussing security concerns. Future research should look more specifically into how ideological preferences of elites are mitigated by economic pragmatism and concerns regarding the security of the state. Although few states would compromise a great deal of their security or economic development for the ideological preferences of elites, some significant sacrifices may be made. For example, the German hotelier, Fritz Gabler, in National Socialist Germany stated that tourism and autarky were conceptually incompatible Semmens, However, the ideology guiding the National Socialists did not place tourism development as a high priority for the regime.
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