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Seemingly influenced by the social constructionist view, Foucault contends madness to be a property of cultural categories rather than individual symptoms; furthermore, he maintains these categories shift throughout time in accordance with dominant modes of thinking Ibid. Wakefield, who has authored over two hundred works regarding the intersection of philosophy and the mental health profession. I have chosen to evaluate the practices of the psychiatric discipline from turn of the nineteenth century through our current managed care era, in hopes of demonstrating how the definition of mental illness has evolved throughout history, in addition to the treatments employed for such.

At this point in history when settlements were largely rural, there remained a general principle of corporate responsibility for common welfare; care was very much a local rather than state concern Ibid. In other words, people took notice of individuals with mental illness because they were not productive members of society. In this era, insane individuals relied on private philanthropy, charity, and almshouses established in response to increasing poverty and insanity within the communities Ibid.

Roberts 6 Humanitarianism carried into the nineteenth century and in combination with the efforts of various religious groups, those plagued with mental illness experienced better care than ever before as history gave way to the Second Great Awakening Ibid. However, as populations grew and the number of mentally ill persons rose in accordance, their prevalence made individual or familial care-taking largely out of the question.

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This institution movement developed profoundly so that by mid nineteenth century, state responsibility for mentally ill persons was accepted as an established principle Ibid. Roberts 7 Initially, such institutions were designed for a small number of patients who would have access to restorative therapy, but patient care suffered in this regard as these institutional facilities experienced swelling populations Grob , 4 , and by the mid twentieth century their once humanitarian reputations had plummeted. Not only was there a dire rise in patient population, but the type of care necessitated by said patients varied significantly.

Since the beginning of the twentieth century, three major revolutions have occurred within psychiatry, each of which having distinct and profound effects on the discipline. Psychoanalysis revolutionized the understanding of and treatment for mental illness in the twentieth century.

Dynamic psychiatry found common sources for both neurotic and normal traits in the persisting unconscious influences of repressed childhood emotions and experiences; its principle was to link neurotic with normal behavior and to classify them both as variants of common developmental processes Ibid. In general, dynamic psychiatry paid little attention to diagnosis; rather, it argued that neurosis was continuous with normal behavior, not categorical illness distinct from normality.

In short, dynamic psychiatry gave psychiatrists the power to classify normal human emotions as disease, and thus in need of treatment. It is significant to note that before the emergence of dynamic psychiatry, only two major types of mental illness were classified in the early twentieth century—affective psychosis identified as unipolar and bipolar depression and dementia praecox what would later be known as schizophrenia Ibid.

When the first classification of mental illnesses was published in , there were twenty-eight categories, only one of which was reserved for non-psychotic patients Grob b. Dynamic psychiatry would mark the beginning of a drastic shift in treatment. Although psychoanalysis was certainly the most prominent treatment of the century thus far, it is important to note other concurrent experimentations in the field.

First, there was insulin coma treatment for schizophrenics which was introduced around , followed by Metrazol convulsive therapy in —as electroshock therapy would not be developed for another two years Ibid. The lobotomy, a psychosurgery developed by Dr. Edgar Moniz in Portugal in , was introduced in the United States the following year Torrey , In , psychiatrist Humphrey Osmond began experimentation with the use of LSD for treatment in cases of alcoholism, neurosis, schizophrenia, and psychopathy; until LSD was outlawed in , approximately forty thousand patients had been prescribed some form of the substance with substantially more positive results than other experimentations performed concurrently Costandi It should be noted that none of these experimental treatments were backed by rigorous or factual scientific research; in fact, the lobotomy procedure in particular many times left the patient in worse condition than pre-surgery, but course of action was not commonly left up to the patient.

In the introduction of his book Changing American Psychiatry, Dr. However, in the same breath he contends this optimism quickly faded as the discipline became increasingly de-medicalized Ibid. The re-medicalization of the psychiatric discipline can be accredited to prominent figures such as Dr. In their advocation for the transformation of psychiatry to a new evidence-based profession, Sabshin and his associates marked the beginning of the second revolution in American psychiatry.

Diagnostic psychiatry defined discrete disorders by evident symptoms, not by the causes of such symptoms Horwitz , With the publication of the newly revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM-III in , diagnostic psychiatry encompassed a considerably large and diverse number of behavioral and psychological conditions; it reclassified as specific diseases all the behavioral traits dynamic psychiatry had defined as pathological Ibid.

Under this medical model for psychiatry, the assumption that mental illnesses stem from disorders of the brain leads science to search for methods of changing neurochemistry Ibid. Shortly after its introduction, antidepressants and antianxiety agents, along with other major and minor tranquilizers, were discovered and vigorously incorporated into treatments as well.

In , one out of every three adults in the U. This stark transition to community patient care was a monumental task that, if successful, would require all persons with mental illness to receive assistance with housing, nutrition, career training, income assistance, social skills as well as social support, not to mention the obvious assistance in management of behavioral issues.

With public mental hospital populations peaking at , patients in , this number began its steady decline with , patients housed in to approximately 80, in Horwitz , The significance pharmacotherapy holds regarding the governance of the mentally ill population is profound.

It allows for patients to control their own behavior generally without need for institutional confinement. In the preface to his writing Mental Illness and American Society, , Grob argues that historical literature regarding care of and treatment for mental illness can be broadly categorized in to traditional and revisionist interpretations. For psychiatrists such as Thomas Szasz, such conduct was undoubtedly a disgrace to the discipline. Late psychiatrist Thomas Szasz spent his career arguing that mental illness is a metaphor, which has been mistaken for a fact.

He maintains that minds cannot be ill—only brains can Beckman , Szasz is most widely recognized as a social critic of both the moral and scientific infrastructure of the psychiatric discipline. Szasz maintained he was not in fact anti-psychiatry, only anti-coercive psychiatry. While many of his positions on modern psychiatry are admittedly controversial, Szasz makes a valid point in his article Senseless, written in response to the mass murder in Tucson, Arizona. Such a view on the matter, Szasz argues takes away the humanity and free will of the person in question Ibid.

Through multiple revisions over the decades, the DSM has deleted, revised, and added disorders—and the numbers are staggering. The original copy of the DSM published in read pages, diagnosing different disorders whereas the DSM-II, published in , somehow added only four additional pages to the manual but managed to diagnosis 76 additional disorders bringing the diagnostic number to Twelve years later when DSM-III was released in , it was nearly pages and had upped the number of diagnostic categories to , while its second revision, known as DSM-III-R, which was released only seven years later, contained pages, diagnosing different disorders.

When DSM-IV was released in , it had reached a whopping diagnostic criteria in a weighty page manual. As I was unable to access the latest numbers for the most current DSM-V which was released in , I can only imagine the changes it must have undergone as diagnostic criteria for labeling those with mental illness has exploded over the past several decades. Although diagnostic criteria continue to expand within the discipline, there remain many prominent psychiatrists who definitively oppose the direction in which modern psychiatry is headed.

The APA responded by reducing their accusations to financial motivation on the part of Spitzer and Allen. It is set in a pure opposition to the outside world. Through its extreme sensitivity and its construction of additional meaning by way of the interpretation of signs in peacetime, it can be juxtaposed with the process of interpreting visual and auditory signs in the war, where often a noise or a change of scenery were omens of danger and the imminence of death.

Woolf thus elaborated the fictional prototype of a distinct kind of madness — the condition induced by the war, one not likely to be paralleled by other derangements, a madness which generates existential speculations about the meaning and implications of the ordeal of the war, setting off a process of phenomenological interrogation of the realms of axiology.

Holmes was on him. Holmes came quite regularly every day. Once you stumble, Septimus wrote on the back of a postcard, human nature is on you. Lawrence did not wish to sustain the conventional post-war image of the soldier as a helpless victim. Not that he presented the antithetical image. However in several Lawrencian texts trauma finds its verbal expression through the discourse of consciousness. In its sparse description and its authorial orchestration of response, it encapsulates the essence of war trauma and the way it entered the fictional discourse, before finding an acceptable or conveyable psychiatric narrativization.

Newborn, the Hepburns are resurrected from the death of the war years. The fictionalization of war trauma thus permeates the narration, changing the customary map of human consciousness: the marginalization of those wounded and traumatized is followed by their foregrounding.

And his eyes were like the eyes of a child that has been ill, blue and abstract, as if they only listened from a long way off, and did not see any more. Hepburn thus mentions two forms of life, knowledge, love: before and after the war. His war narrative is a gap which the text blanks out. This exemplifies the non-narratibility of World War I experience, as mentioned earlier.

Wussow points out that :. In the stories that comprise England, My England , the prominence afforded the written and spoken word suggests wartime concerns with language. Furthermore, the difficulties engendered by linguistic acts point to the disintegration of communication between individuals. Wussow Reality and hallucination interchange with one another.

If Maurice is partly a composite of returned soldiers and an epitome of separation and isolation, his fate suggests that society will never become a whole again. Maurice exemplifies a condition of mental vulnerability. However his mind resists the grip of madness as it struggles to survive. It is a mind learning from experience — not a mind that is broken. The returned soldiers have a touch of aggression, sometimes blind and unjustified, sometimes unconscious. War neurosis thus comes to represent a new modern condition, defined by alienation, the lapse into melancholy, the maiming of the soul and of the ability to love.

Aldington , Richard. A Portrait of a Genius, But…. New York: Collier Books, Bell , Michael. England, My England and Other Stories. Bruce Steele.

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Bion , Wilfred R. A Memoir of the Future. London: Karnac Books, Breger , Louis. Freud: Darkness in the Midst of Vision. Caruth , Cathy. Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History. London: John Hopkins University Press, Cole , Sarah.

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Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Cushman , Keith. Lawrence: The Man Who Lived. Partlow, Jr. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, Ekstein s, Modris. New York: Oxford University Press, New York: Mariner Books; 1 edition, Freud , Sigmund. Civilisation and Its Discontents. New York: W. Norton, The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud. Volume: 5. James Strachey. New York: Basic Books, Friedman , Ariela. New York: Routledge, Graves , Robert.

Good-bye to All That. Harmondsworth: Penguin, Hargreaves , Tracy. Suzanne Raitt, Trudi Tate. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Kingsbury , Celia Malone. Many of these tests are considered preliminary in nature as they do not identify a specific compound but a general class of compounds. Techniques that are considered confirmatory are those which actually determine the structure of a compound and thus identify a specific compound instead of a class of compounds.

The drug chemist may have large quantities of drug materials to analyze or just milligrams of a material. The drugs may be pure or mixed with other substances which then require the chemist to extract the drugs for analysis. Drug analysis normally has the highest number of analyses in forensic laboratories due to the high incidence of drug abuse around the world. In fire debris analysis, it is necessary to know how flammable liquids are made and how they burn in order to recognize both the flammable liquids and their breakdown products i.

This cabin exploded because of a leak in a poorly installed propane gas line. Accumulated gas was set off by a loose electrical connection at the furnace. Criminalists often combine multiple skills or work with other disciplines. Determining the cause of the explosion that destroyed this log cabin required collaboration among chemists, metallurgists, and engineers.

Determining the origin where the fire started is not as easy as it was once thought. Several high-profile cases of wrongful conviction have made it clear that there is a need for more scientists with knowledge of chemistry and physics to enter the field. Trace evidence testing covers a wide area of materials to be analyzed such as explosives, gunshot residue, hairs, and fibers. In many cases, criminalists must understand the physics of how evidence is produced. Criminalists must not only understand the composition of trace evidence but also understand the dynamics that create or alter physical evidence.

For example when an explosion occurs, it is very rare that the explosive or device that explodes is completely consumed or destroyed. Rather, they are transformed into residues and very small pieces. It is up to the criminalist to analyze these residues and recognize these small pieces for what they are i. The major difference between criminal forensic science and wildlife forensic science is that the victim and occasionally the suspect is an animal.

The identification of wildlife evidence can be complicated because wildlife enforcement officers rarely seize whole animals which can be readily identified by a museum or zoo expert. More typically parts or the products created from wildlife will be recovered as evidence. The characteristics which define an animal species are rarely present in those parts or products. Wildlife forensic scientists are often required to develop new ways to identify species through research with carefully documented known specimens before they can examine evidence in a case and testify in court.

An additional complication is that, while human forensics deals with only a single species homo sapiens , wildlife forensic scientists must be prepared to identify evidence from any species in the world that is illegally killed, smuggled, poached, or sold through an illicit market. While it might seem that wildlife forensic scientists face an overwhelming task in developing new and reliable ID techniques, they do have one advantage over other forensic scientists: sample size is rarely a problem. Example seizures of wildlife evidence have included 20, pounds of suspected sea turtle meat, 10, pounds of ivory, and , suspected rhinoceros horn pills.

Fisher, Barry A. Inman, K. Lentini, J. Mozayani, A. Saferstein R. Ubelaker, Douglas H. Digital data are all around us and are collected routinely in most investigations. Digital evidence examinations require very specific hardware and software tools to find numerous types of digital evidence. Examiners, depending upon their specialties, may discover evidence and provide testimony concerning the following:. Computer forensics used to involve simply looking at individual computers which may have some connection to criminal activity.

With the ready availability of access to the Internet, intrusions to gain access to or corrupt information on other computer systems by criminals have become widespread. Network forensics is required to properly investigate and determine what happened. This extends to mobile devices with the explosion in smart phone and tablet systems that provide fully networked computing technology in the palm of your hand.

The analysis of audio recordings requires techniques and procedures which continue to be evolving areas of research. Forensic speaker comparison, acoustic analysis and enhancement, and audio authenticity examinations are all important activities which can aid investigations and assist in the settlement of disputes. With capabilities to disguise voices as well as easily manipulate digital audio with off-the-shelf technology, the investigation of underlying acoustic patterns has become one of many important areas of both technological and linguistic research.

The advent of digital photography provides the potential to aid in the documentation of crime scenes and injuries. Digital photography also provides a source of images from witnesses, victims, and subjects due to the widespread availability of digital cameras in laptops, tablets, and smart phones. An extension of the explosion of technology is the widespread availability of video recording capabilities.

Nearly every mobile device can record video, providing more sources of evidence than ever before. Over , photographs and 13, digital videos were reviewed in the Boston Marathon Bombing investigation, which added the complexity of sheer volume to the traditional issues in digital image and video examinations.

Deriving important information from digital photographs and videos relies on the ability to authenticate such images as well as enhance and conduct analysis to extract meaningful evidence. In the United States, there are undergraduate degree programs with emphasis in digital forensics, computer forensics, and media forensics. There are also graduate degree and graduate certificate programs in these fields.


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Digital forensic examiners also may have various types of certifications. A certified professional not only possesses technical competency but also adheres to a strong code of ethics. Digital forensic examiners are employed in both the public and private sector. Private practice consultants can be found in most major cities.

Many large police organizations as well as most state and federal law enforcement agencies, generally employ digital forensic experts. Many qualified practitioners are members of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences www. Audio analysis of a sound sample. Collectively, their interests extend across all of the engineering fields as well as the underlying sciences such as physics and chemistry. They are problem solvers and problem definers who are often brought into an investigation with no clear definition as to what they are going to do but with the expectation that they will do something useful.

For example, Caltech Physicist, Richard B. Feynman, was asked to address the Challenger disaster not because of his quantum field theory work that brought him the Nobel Prize but because he represented the epitome of a field known for its problem-solving genius. In broad terms, these individuals perform research and design services in addition to building, manufacturing, and maintaining structures and devices that sustain and improve our modern way of life.

They deal with mechanisms, heat, sound, electricity, fluids gases and liquids , the environment, weapons systems, transportation, the biosciences, food production, and communications. In short, just about everything you see around you every day and some things that you do not see such as pacemakers, groundwater, and artificial joints. Above all else, human health and safety are overriding concerns for the forensic engineer.

The forensic scientist or engineer applies the tools and techniques of science and engineering to resolve questions relating to civil, criminal, and regulatory issues. Forensic scientists and engineers typically investigate accidents, product failures, environmental contamination, and criminal acts. Incident investigations may involve bridge or building collapses, automobile collisions, air and rail accidents, explosions, shootings, and stabbings.

Practitioners of forensic engineering sciences may be involved in helping to apprehend and convict criminals on the one hand or exonerating and protecting the innocent on the other. They may also provide support in lawsuits based on claims that negligent acts caused personal injury. Other cases may use forensic engineers to correctly assign blame for environmental harm, to evaluate claims that product flaws resulted in injury to the user of the product, and to show whether patent rights have been infringed.

Many requests for forensic engineering services involve criminal and civil suits in which the forensic scientist or engineer will be asked to render expert opinions regarding the results of examinations. These opinions may receive further scrutiny in a deposition or during a trial. In most legal disputes involving science and engineering issues, each party will have their own experts who will evaluate the credibility of the proffered forensic analysis.

Before becoming a forensic scientist or engineer, you must first become a scientist or an engineer. An individual specializing in any one of these disciplines should have a broad-based education that will provide a good understanding of all other disciplines. The forensic engineer or scientist should become an expert at one or more component disciplines.

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Examples might involve becoming an expert in environmental data collection and analysis including use of the mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph. In still another example, the investigator of an accident involving military munitions should have become expert in non-destructive, non-invasive evaluation using advanced imaging techniques such as gamma radiography, ultrasound, and MRI scans in order to ascertain what went wrong.

Depending on the field chosen, an advanced degree, MS or PhD, may be recommended. Work experience in the chosen field is a plus. Other essential capabilities include writing and speaking skills. Knowledge and understanding of legal procedures and standards of proof are often important. Active participation in professional organizations and continuing education are highly recommended.

The forensic engineer or scientist must be highly competent, ethical, credible, and should have extensive professional experience in the subject matter under consideration. Inspecting a product for design defect is just one of the many applications called upon by the forensic engineer.

Job opportunities for forensic engineering scientists track those for other types of forensic practitioners—crime labs at the federal, state, and local levels; law enforcement agencies; research laboratories; insurance companies, and small or large corporations. An opportunity for private consulting practice exists for many forensic engineering scientists once they are well into their professional lives.

Far more than in any other sections of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Members and Fellows in the Engineering Sciences Section operate their own consulting firms that range in size from a single practitioner to multiple individual experts.


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The primary clients for these small consulting firms are attorneys with civil and criminal practices, corporations, states, municipalities, as well as prosecutors at all levels of government. Some engineers and scientists are choosing to pursue forensic engineering sciences as a first career, which adds a younger contingent to this growing community. Nor is there an end in sight to the number of present or future specialties that may become forensic.

The examples are many. The General Section was founded in and is the third largest section in the Academy. It is the home of established areas of forensic science not fitting into the more narrow definitions or membership requirements of the other sections, newly emerging forensic scientific specialties, or those forensic specialists whose numbers are not sufficient to support a separate section. The goal of every section of the Academy is to promote professionalism, integrity, competency, education, foster research, improve practice, and encourage collaboration.

Membership in the General Section provides opportunities for professional development, personal contacts, and recognition of achievements. Additionally, members can advance their scientific proficiencies by learning from and consulting with scientists with broader experiences and similar interests.

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Members of the General Section represent forensic specialties in the areas of laboratory investigation, field investigation, clinical work, education and research, and other emerging forensic science disciplines. New areas of forensic study result from a combination of adaptation, unique problem solving, and advances in natural and social sciences.

Our latest accepted discipline is Forensic veterinary sciences, concerned with the health and welfare of animals through the recovery, identification, and examination of material evidence of inhumane destruction, treatment, abuse, neglect, or illicit trade in animals or animal parts for legal purposes. Veterinary technologists and technicians perform medical tests under the supervision of a licensed veterinarian to treat or to help veterinarians diagnose the illnesses and injuries of animals.

One of our larger subgroups includes forensic nurses specializing in areas such as sexual assault examination, clinical forensic medicine, and death investigation. These specially trained nurses contribute to any manner of investigations involving human injury or illness.

Work experience requirements vary with educational levels and specific field of interest. Almost all agencies that support forensic science personnel provide opportunities for continuing in-service training and many offer additional advanced training. Student mentoring is an especially important component of education for disciplines such as bloodstain interpretation, medicolegal death investigations, and forensic artistry, for which specific college degree programs have yet to be developed. Forensic crime scene investigators assess a mass grave site. Many of the forensic scientists within the General Section work for universities, police agencies state, city, and local agencies , federal agencies such as DEA, ATF, and FBI , and criminal investigation arms of the military forces and their support laboratories.

Private companies and independent forensic specialists are consultants to either the prosecution or defense. Income is dependent on specialty and geographical area and is generally increasing for the well-trained forensic scientist. Career advancements are available in many agencies and are dependent on the discipline. As crime continues to evolve with technology and society, forensic scientists will be challenged to respond by adapting established technologies and, where necessary, developing new ones. These emerging forensic science disciplines will continue to be of vital importance to the courts and society in general.

Forensic radiologist interpreting x-rays for case preparation. Many of the forensic sciences — such as fingerprint analysis and document examination — originally developed from the need for lawyers to explain the significance of physical evidence to a case, often to identify a perpetrator of a crime. All forensic science is evidence used by lawyers in presenting and explaining their cases in court. Rapid advances in scientific knowledge during the last century resulted in scrutiny by attorneys and courts of the validity of then-current scientific analytical techniques. A forensic scientist will frequently be asked to provide testimony as an expert witness who has conducted a scientific analysis of the evidence in a legal proceeding.

Consequently, forensic scientists must be aware of the process involved in being qualified as an expert and the evidence standards that will be applied to the scientific analysis performed by the forensic scientist. Expertise comes from education, training, or experience and can be based on the scientific method or on specialized training. Counsel on both sides of a matter being tried in court, as well as the judge presiding over the trial, are lawyers. They are the main players in the drama of the courtroom. A lawyer who uses expert testimony in a criminal, civil, or other legal proceeding must know the laws that govern the admissibility of scientific evidence and be able to apply these laws when submitting or challenging scientific evidence in depositions and court proceedings.

The judge, also, must understand the issues concerning the validity and admissibility of scientific evidence and must ensure the legality of the entire process. Much depends on the knowledge, training, education, and experience of the forensic scientist whom a lawyer seeks to qualify as an expert witness since an expert witness, and only an expert witness, is permitted to testify to an opinion based on analyses performed by the expert.

Although each deposition, hearing, or court appearance is a unique experience, forensic scientists testifying in a legal proceeding may reasonably expect questioning to cover at least a few key areas before the scientist is qualified as an expert by the judge. Education in the field of specialized knowledge in which the witness claims to be proficient will be most relevant and may cover any and all formal education the witness has — or has not — completed.

Cross-examination by opposing counsel is typically more challenging. There are limits to all scientific disciplines. Experts well-versed in their discipline should be aware of those limits and be able to testify with ease about what can — and cannot — be known regarding a given piece of evidence. Members of the Jurisprudence Section must possess a law degree, have passed a bar examination, and be licensed members in good standing of the bar in one or more states.

Full-time law school students are eligible to join the section as student affiliates. Continuing education is essential for lawyers to stay current as forensic science advances and legal standards adapt to these advances. Judges are lawyers who have been appointed or elected to the bench. Lawyers working with forensic science issues may be employed in a variety of broad fields or specialties and by a broad range of employers and organizations. Some are employed by large private companies; still others teach in colleges and universities.

Hours of work and income are dependent on geographical area; place of employment; experience; status and reputation; and, type of practice. Odontology Natural and synthetic crowns and bridges dentition. Forensic dentistry odontology is a vital branch of forensic science that involves the application of dental knowledge, primarily for the identification of human remains.

Forensic dentists deal with a range of medicolegal problems, but the most common issue addressed is identification of human remains. Often no fingerprints are on file or are destroyed by decomposition, fragmentation, or by fire as occurred in and in most air disasters. Natural disasters such as tsunamis, hurricanes, and volcanoes can involve an enormous number of deceased.

Buried bodies may even need to be re-identified if caskets are washed out of the ground by flooding or avalanche. The identification of an unknown or confirmation of an identity is performed at the request of the coroner or medical examiner. Fragments of a jaw or a single tooth can be sufficient to make an identification providing antemortem pre-death dental X-rays are available for comparison. A postmortem after-death oral examination includes intraoral and extra oral photographs, dental X-rays, and dental charting.

In the absence of a missing person match, the dental characteristics of an individual can give law enforcement clues to identity.