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You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Email to a Friend. Learn more about the Paumanok Publications market research report ordering process. Read what customers are saying about Paumanok Reports. Paumanok Publications. Quick Overview This Zogbi global market leader research report on circuit protection components covers products used for both overvoltage and overcurrent protection to Double click on above image to view full picture.

More Views. Qty: Add to Cart. Product Description Product Sample Details This global market research report on circuit protection components covers products used for both overvoltage and overcurrent protection. It is the world's second-largest bank by market capitalization and the fourth largest bank in the US by total assets. CEO: Timothy J. Find out everything there's to know about Wells Fargo. We offer you a great deal of unbiased information from the internal database, personal records, and many other details that might be of interest to you.

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Wells Fargo Employees. Wells Fargo Years - Job Director Enterprise Analytics at Oracle. Industry Information Technology and Services. Wells Fargo Years December - October Industry Financial Services. Jordan Adams Miami, Florida. Wells Fargo Years August - April Job Multilingual business professional specializing in taxation and public accounting. Industry Higher Education. Industry Hospitality. Industry Marketing and Advertising. Job Marketing and Management Consultant. Industry Management Consulting. Wells Fargo Years May - Present. Job Relationship Manager at Wells Fargo.

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Job Premier Banker at Wells Fargo. Wells Fargo Years October - April Job Sr. Industry Consumer Goods. Larry T. Works Santa Maria, California. Job Vice President, Sr. Business Relationship Manager. Finance, B. Curtis Miller Santa Barbara, California. Wells Fargo Years June - June Job Simply Marketing Promoting innovation and research and development One measure of innovation is the intensity of research and development, measured as.

Worldwide, it increased slightly from 1. In other emerging economies the rise was slower—from 1. The Russian Federation maintained research and development intensity at pre-crisis levels, averaging around 1. Conversely, South Africa saw a substantial drop, from 0. Iimi, A. The targets of Sustainable Development Goal 10 focus on reducing inequality in a variety of contexts: income inequality within a country and inequality by gender, age, disability, race, class, ethnicity, religion, and opportunity.

It also tackles inequality among countries in terms of voice, migration, and international aid. Reducing inequality within countries Sustainable Development Goal 10 aims to progressively achieve, by , sustained income growth among the poorest 40 percent of the population at a rate higher than the national average in every country target Of those 56, 9 still experienced negative growth group A in figure 10a , including high-income countries the United Kingdom and the United States and middle-income countries Guatemala and the Kyrgyz Republic.

ZG, SI. Annualized growth of per capita real mean consumption or income for the poorest 40 percent is greater than the national average Annualized growth of per capita real mean consumption or income for the poorest 40 percent is less than or equal to the national average. Reducing inequality across countries International aid.


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Millennium Development Goal 8 focused on the need for high-, middle-, and low-income countries to work together to create. In these cases the Sustainable Development Goal target would not have been met, even though people on average were better off. Among countries with data, a larger proportion of low- and middle-income countries than of high-income countries met the target. Annualized growth of per capita real mean consumption or income for the poorest 40 percent is greater than the national average Annualized growth of per capita real mean consumption or income for the poorest 40 percent is less than or equal to the national average Source: World Bank Global Database of Shared Prosperity; World Development Indicators database SI.

The Sustainable Development Goals continue this focus, encouraging official development assistance and financial flows to countries where the need is greatest target But meeting target Increases in inflows to the poorest countries have not kept pace with those to middle-income countries.

Bilateral official development assistance to Sub-Saharan Africa also fell 5 percent in nominal terms from to People migrate for many reasons, including better employment opportunities and higher wages. Many migrants remit money back to their country of origin, to care for their family, and the amount of such payments is large and has been increasing. But it is not cheap to send money across national borders.

SDG 11 Sustainable cities and communities Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable. This demographic transformation will affect the economic, environmental, social, and political futures of individuals everywhere. Cities are complex systems in which every component affects every other. Sustainable Development Goal 11 focuses on making cities and other human settlements safe, inclusive, resilient, and sustainable.

Improving the quality of housing Access to adequate, safe, and affordable housing and basic services, in addition to slum upgrading, is critical to sustainable cities target Although there is no consistent definition of slum areas, the United Nations Human Settlements Programme estimates take into consideration the proportion of urban population living in dwellings that lack access to an improved drinking water source, improved sanitation facilities, sufficient living area, durable structure, or security of tenure.

In Sub- Saharan Africa more than half the urban population lives in slum conditions. In those countries poor people move from rural areas to cities in search of greater opportunity but often end up even more entrenched in poverty. Other Sub- Saharan countries have made extraordinary progress in reducing their urban slums.

According to the Global Burden of Disease study, exposure to outdoor air pollution as measured by levels of particles less than 2. In both regions the levels of outdoor PM2.

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Average pollution levels are estimated by combining satellite observations of airborne particles with models of atmospheric chemistry, which are calibrated against ground-level air quality monitoring data from nearly 3, locations and 79 countries. The satellite-based estimates cover both cities and rural areas. While there is no substitute for ground-level monitoring, particularly in densely populated urban areas, large swathes of the globe still do not have this monitoring infrastructure, so remote sensing technologies such as those used for the Global Burden of Disease study continue to be a powerful tool for measuring large-scale exposure to air pollutants.

Mean annual concentration of particles less than 2. Source: Brauer, B. Measuring the impact of urbanization Measuring progress toward the Sustainable Development Goal 11 targets in a consistent way across all countries will be a challenge. For example, the target on transportation systems requires monitoring the proportion of the population with convenient access to public transport.

This requires a much more precise understanding of where people live than is currently available. Other targets call for monitoring land consumption and open space, which requires global data on built-up areas. Do certain kinds of economic activity need to be present for an area to be considered urban?

On the outskirts of a city, where precisely does the urban area end and the rural area begin? Each country defines and measures its urban areas differently, making comparison of trends in urbanization across countries problematic. Fortunately, new and innovative forms of data can help monitor progress toward Sustainable Development Goal 11, including maps of builtup areas derived from imagery and radar data from satellites. In turn, this can help provide a global picture of the scope and nature of the urbanization challenge and help make cities inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable.

Managing natural resources efficiently Adjusted net savings is an indicator of efficient use of natural resources target Adjusted net savings takes into account investment in human capital, depreciation of fixed capital, depletion of natural resources, and pollution damage. Positive savings form the basis for building wealth and future growth. Negative savings rates suggest declining wealth and unsustainable development. Adjusted net savings is especially useful for gauging whether countries that depend heavily on natural resources are balancing the depletion of their natural resources by investing rents in other forms of productive capital, such as through education.

ZS, NY. CD, NY. Reducing food loss and waste Meeting the food needs of a growing global population while reducing food loss and waste target Food loss is defined as a decrease in quantity or quality of food at any stage of the food supply chain, from the point at which it is harvested or made to the point it is eaten. Food waste occurs when edible food reaches the consumer but expires, is thrown away, or is otherwise neglected and not eaten. The extent of food loss varies greatly by income group and region. In the high-income countries of North America and East Asia and Pacific, the equivalent of more than 1, calories of food per person per day is lost, mostly through food waste.

By contrast, in SubSaharan Africa the equivalent of calories. Saving a quarter of this lost food would be enough to feed million people. Excludes Kazakhstan. Source: Basel Convention www. A partial inventory of more than 3, toxic sites around the world found that the health of as many as million people living near these sites may be affected. In middle-income countries per capita hazardous waste generation rose from 17 kilograms between and to 42 kilograms between and Hazardous waste generation by low-income countries was 7 kilograms per capita over the same period.

Reforming fossil fuel subsidies Sustainable Development Goal 12 calls for rationalizing inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies target The International Monetary Fund provides a comprehensive estimate of subsidies by including not only the difference between the final price consumers pay and international market prices, but also the environmental and social costs of local pollution, road traffic, and climate change figure 12c.

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Excludes Kazakhstan, which reportedly generated Source: Coady, D. Parry, L. Sears, and B. Globally, was the hottest year on record, according to the World Meteorological Organization. Climate change is already affecting every country on every continent through changing seasons and weather patterns, rising sea levels, and more extreme weather events. Changes in temperature and precipitation pose substantial risks for agriculture, water supplies, food, ecosystems, energy security, and infrastructure.

Understanding the impacts of climate change Sustainable Development Goal 13 calls for stronger resilience and capacity to adapt to climate-related hazards and natural disasters; integration of climate change measures into national planning; improved climate-related education, awareness-raising, and capacity building; and mobilization of sustained resources to address the needs of low- and middle-income countries.

Since both the occurrence and economic impact of weather-related natural disasters such as floods, droughts, and tropical storms have risen. Estimated minimum and maximum temperature increases by from average for — degrees Celsius. Addressing climate change Countries must take steps to strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards target The Hyogo Framework for Action, which provided a global blueprint for a range of disaster risk reduction efforts for —15, cites climate change as one of the primary factors increasing the severity of future disasters.

Under the framework, countries used a 1—5 scale to assess progress on 22 indicators in five areas. Integrating climate change measures into national policies, strategies, and planning is critical target Note: Data are the median estimate of general circulation models.

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Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change aims to hold increases in global average temperature to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to reach peak global greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible. Global emissions of carbon dioxide —a major greenhouse gas and primary driver of climate change—increased from As of December , nationally determined contributions from countries have been submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

These commitments include measures to reduce emissions mitigation , better manage the impacts of change climate on socioeconomic systems and ecosystems adaptation , and support national policies and planning. Development is moving toward climate-resilient and low emission pathways in many low- and middle-income countries,4 which is likely to be enhanced by multilateral development bank commitments to increase support for climate change and disaster risk management, especially in lowincome countries.

For example, the World Bank includes climate change risks and opportunities in the country partnership frameworks that specify major development challenges in countries and areas of support from partners. Gitay, H. SDG 14 Life below water Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas, and marine resources for sustainable development. Fish is the main animal protein for more than 1 billion people. Average worldwide fish consumption is about 20 kilograms per person per year.

Monitoring progress toward the sustainability of these resources is paramount but creates substantial challenges. Sustainably capturing and farming seafood Capture fisheries have dominated the seafood market until recently.


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  5. Since the s there has been a rise in aquaculture fish, shellfish, and seaweed farming , which now accounts for nearly half of seafood production figure 14a. Capture fisheries have generally stagnated since the early s, and many governments have implemented subsidy schemes to protect local fish supplies and employment in the sector. Increasing the economic benefits of fish production Fish production accounts for a substantial share of economic activity in many economies, including Small Island Developing States and countries in Sub- Saharan Africa. Protecting and conserving the oceans Marine protected areas can help rebuild depleting stocks and act as sanctuaries for biodiversity.

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    According to the country-level data available, by South Asia had the lowest share of marine protected areas in its territorial waters. But all regions have achieved at least some progress over the previous two decades figure 14b. The condition of marine biodiversity and of the global environment is closely connected. The number of dead zones — areas of ocean with too little oxygen for most marine life — has increased by a third between and , largely as the result of nutrient pollution.

    Dead zones now rank alongside overfishing, habitat loss, and harmful algal blooms as key stressors of marine ecosystems. There are some dead zones in coastal waters worldwide figure 14c , affecting an area of 95, square miles. Agnew, D. Kelleher, K. Diaz, R. Global distribution of plus systems that have scientifically reported accounts of being eutrophication-associated dead zones Human footprint 80 60 40 DC1 for supporting material for zone-specific information.

    Source: Diaz, R. SDG 15 Life on land Protect, restore, and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss. Protecting forests Crucial to the health of the planet, to its diverse species, and to the livelihoods of a fifth of the human population,1 forests contribute to long-term economic growth, social inclusion, and environmental stability.

    Despite numerous international engagements to protect forest areas, national and regional afforestation and reforestation efforts need to accelerate in order to ensure the sustainability of forests target Restoring land and soil target Soil degradation affects 52 percent of agricultural land, and arable land is being lost at 30—35 times its historical rate. Degradation in the drylands —zones naturally Degradation correlates with loss in net primary productivity Source: Bai, Z. Implementing sustainable and integrated land and water management practices will help the areas and populations most impacted.

    Action to protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species and their habitats will help reverse this target Substantial gains have been made in conserving biodiversity figure 15c , with roughly 12 percent of global forests now designated as protected areas. Many species are under threat of extinction due to climate change, poaching, overfishing, pollution, and habitat degradation.

    Among assessed species, the highest number of threatened plants are in Latin America and Caribbean, the highest number of threatened fish are in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the highest number of threatened mammals and birds are in East Asia and Pacific figure 15d.

    Chao, S. Pauly, eds. NO, EN. Peaceful nations governed with fairness and transparency provide the optimal platforms for implementing development strategies and programs. However, many states are in fragile situations, with citizens and their daily lives compromised by fear, conflict, unjust laws, and opaque governance. The success of the Sustainable Development Goals in such areas depends on achieving livable and calm communities supported by reliable and accountable institutions.

    Reducing violence and related deaths Protecting the lives of people is one of the most important obligations of states target Intentional homicide occurs in every country, but homicide rates vary across and within regions. Sub-Saharan Africa had 14 homicides per , people. East Asia and Pacific had the lowest: 2 homicides per , people.

    One measure of peace is the absence of conflict-related deaths. Escalation of several conflicts, coupled with the extreme violence in the Syrian Arab Republic, resulted in having the highest number of battled-related deaths since In the same year, about 12, people were killed in Afghanistan, and close to 12, were killed in Iraq. Promoting justice Strong justice and rule of law systems provide mechanisms for resolving land and natural resource disputes, keeping governments accountable to citizens, and giving businesses the confidence to enter into and enforce contracts target One monitoring tool is the proportion of the population that has experienced a dispute; accessed a formal, informal, alternative, or traditional dispute resolution mechanism; and feels the process was just.

    While global coverage is not yet available, appropriate survey methodology has been developed over the past The majority of battle-related deaths occurred in three countries during Strengthening institutions Building stronger institutions requires efficient, effective, and accountable public spending. Comparing actual primary government expenditure with the original approved budget is one way of analyzing how well government budgets are planned and public financial management is executed.

    The Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability Program assesses how close national governments come to meeting their proposed targets. Providing legal identity for all Effective civil registration and vital statistics systems capture key life events, such as births, marriages, and deaths. In seeking legal identity for all, including full birth registration by target Globally, many births go unregistered.

    In only 72 percent of children under age 5 had their births registered, and in Sub-Saharan Africa fewer than half were registered figure 16d. In contrast, birth registration is nearly universal in Europe and Central Asia. Establishing legislative guarantees and mechanisms for public access to information safeguards fundamental freedoms and facilitates public input and review.

    However, implementation and enforcement of such guarantees and mechanisms are difficult to measure. Measuring both the quality of laws and legislative guarantees and their levels of implementation will be necessary to measure progress toward target Trapnell, S. World Bank, Washington, DC. SDG 17 Partnership for global development Coordinated global macroeconomic policies, increased aid flows for the poorest countries, effective public-private partnerships, and domestic resource mobilization in low- and middle-income countries are key to achieving development goals.

    Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development. Enabling development through remittances International migration has an important role in economic relations between low- and middleincome countries and high-income countries. This was equivalent to 1. Exports from the least developed countries are highly concentrated: In Angola, Bangladesh, and Myanmar accounted for.

    Exports were dominated by commodities, notably oil, copper, gold, and natural gas. Using public-private partnerships to finance infrastructure Public-private partnerships have a crucial role in improving efficiency in the delivery of public services and helping governments address infrastructure gaps. The pattern of commitments has been uneven, with strong growth prior to the Asian financial crisis followed by sharp declines before structural reforms, favorable macroeconomic policies, and buoyant global economic conditions sparked a recovery figure 17d.

    Commitments have been flat since , reflecting a slowdown in key emerging markets. In relation to GDP, investment commitments for public-private partnerships in infrastructure remain low, at 0. Predicted based on the first semester of Statistical capacity Data and statistics High-quality data and statistics underpin national decision-making processes, guiding resource allocation, private sector investment, program design, and policy formulation.

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    The need for improvements are explicit in targets For most indicators the best ways to improve data availability are to invest in national statistical capacity and to develop stronger partnerships among international agencies, governments, and civil society.

    These investments work: Data availability has steadily improved over the last two decades. For instance, the number of countries with enough estimates of poverty incidence to measure a meaningful trend increased from just 2 in to 53 in figure SC1. Agenda pledges that no one will be left behind and that the goals and targets will be met by all countries, people, and segments of society. This pledge places new demands on data and statistics and means that disaggregation by sex, income group, age, location, and other dimensions of development takes on new importance.

    The composite indicator combines a variety of different measures to illustrate general trends, but the components can help identify specific areas where progress is being made and where improvements are still needed. For example, Ghana has seen a steady increase in its overall average score, from 51 to 66, because of better statistical methodologies. Notable improvements were a new base year and weights for the consumer price index, rebased national accounts, and better estimates of vaccination coverage. Of the 10 countries with the highest overall indicator value for , 3 were in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 7 were in Europe and Central Asia.

    Statistical capacity has improved in all regions. Financial inclusion Access to financial services enables individuals and firms to manage sudden changes in income, smooth cash flow, accumulate assets, and make productive investments. It promotes better use of resources and better access to essential services and enables a higher quality of life. Financial inclusion is an important enabler of development. Improving access to financial services is a cross-cutting target of the Sustainable Development Goals and is explicitly recognized in Sustainable Development Goals 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 9.

    Financial inclusion means having access to a full range of affordable formal financial products and services, delivered responsibly by sustainable institutions. To manage their financial lives, adults need access to an account or an electronic instrument to securely store money, send payments, and receive deposits.

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    But around 2 billion adults worldwide do not have such an account, and many small businesses cannot access the financial instruments they need. Financial inclusion is a complex concept and is difficult to measure. Important aspects are access to, use of, and quality of services. Moreover, relevant data have been.

    One measure of access to financial services is account ownership. In a select group of 10 low- and middleincome countries with data for , a large share of small and medium-size enterprises have an account at a financial institution, but only a small share obtains financing through loans figure FI1. The physical infrastructure of the financial system has been improving.

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    While the number of bank branches per adult remained more or less unchanged worldwide between and , the number of automated teller machines rose quickly figure FI2. And innovative ways of accessing financial services are making brickand-mortar branches less relevant in many cases. P5, FB. Fragility, conflict, and violence While Sustainable Development Goal 16 is dedicated to promoting peaceful societies, progress toward each Sustainable Development Goal will be severely impacted in regions affected by fragility, conflict, and violence.

    Episodes of unrest can reverse development efforts and rapidly dismantle achievements built over a long time, along social, political economy, and physical dimensions. The number of forcibly displaced persons — which includes internally displaced people, refugees, and asylum seekers — is estimated to be 60 million, the highest since World War II. In the Middle East and North Africa was the region of origin for 4. The two regions also lead the world in granting asylum to refugees.

    The influx of refugees to host countries presents challenges. OR, SM. Sustainability means that refugees will need to find decent work, their children will need to be educated, and the conflicts and poverty in their home countries will need to be resolved. Impacting lives and livelihoods In fragile, conflict, and violent situations individuals and their day-to-day lives are threatened, and their surroundings become dangerous. People flee, and the numbers of internally displaced persons and refugees increase.

    Fragility, conflict, and violence damage the social fabrics and social contract of countries, impacting behavioral codes and trust in government and aggravating ethnic or religious friction. Fragility, conflict, and violence often disproportionately affect the health and safety of women and children. Eroding institutions and political economy Governance, rule of law, trust between citizens and governments, justice, and human rights fail when countries become fragile or are affected by conflict or violence.

    These failures affect the economy by discouraging investments and causing capital flight. In fragile, conflict, and violent situations shadow economies tend to flourish, and the rogue exploitation of mineral and natural resources often finances and fuels conflicts. By , reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions. Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable.

    By , ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance. By , build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters. Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions.

    Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions. Goal 2 End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture 2. By , end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round. By , end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by , the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons.

    By , double the agricultural productivity and incomes of smallscale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and nonfarm employment. By , ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality.

    Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility. By , end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1, live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1, live births.

    By , end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases. By , reduce by one third premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being. Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol. By , ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive healthcare services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes.

    Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all. By , substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination. Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate.

    Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States. Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks. Goal 4 Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all 4.

    By , ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes. By , ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education. By , ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university.

    By , substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship. By , eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations. By , ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy.

    Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all. By , substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries.

    By , substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States. By , achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations.

    By , improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally. By , substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity.

    By , implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate. By , protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes. By , expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies.

    Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management.