Manual Dance As Education: Towards A National Dance Culture (Falmer Press Library on Aesthetic Education)

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Dettenborn-Betz L. Quality of Life Research 21 1 Pavot W. A manual for the satisfaction with life scale. Urbana IL: University of Illinois. Pedagogical Institute. Physical education in primary school and curriculum: Book of teacher. Greek traditional dance as a medium promoting the positive psychology of the individual: Study review. Quin E. Frazer L. Education and Health 25 2 Ravens-Sieberer U. Assessing health-related quality of life in chronically ill children with the German KINDL: First psychometric and content analytical results.

Quality of Life Research 7 Sanderson P. Physical education and dance. Roberts Ed. Encouraging expression: The arts in primary school pp. London UK: Cassell. Age and gender issues in adolescent attitudes to dance. European Physical Education Review 7 2 Savrami K. Dance in education: The Greek reality.

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Research in Dance Education 13 1 Sherborne V. Developmental movement for children: Mainstream special needs and pre-school. Shusterman R. Thinking through the body: Essays in somaesthetics. Stinson S. Dance for young children: Finding the magic in movement. Creative dance for preschool children. Swindlehurst G. Teaching dance: A framework for creativity.

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Lavin Ed. Creative approaches to physical education: Helping children to achieve their true potential pp. Abingdon UK: Routledge. Nassis G. Methods of assessing healthrelated quality of life. Kinesiology 5 1 Thomas J. Methods of research into physical activity. Athens Greece: Paschalidis. Tountas G. The kidscreen study: Assessing the quality of life related to the health of children and adolescents.

Tsompanaki E. Is there a need for a higher dance institution in Greece? The reality in Greek contemporary dance institutions. Research in Dance Education 15 3 Tyrovola V. Traditional dance as a means of aesthetic treatment. Reason and Act 39 Adshead Ed. Dance analysis: Theory and practice pp. Leadership and R.

Von Laban: The invisible aspects of birth of creative-expressive dance. Socialhistorical approach. Scientific Journal Kinesiology-Humanistic Direction 5 Venetsianou F. Science of Dance 8 Vidalis A. Syngelakis M. Papathanasiou M. Whalley D. Hippokratia 6 1 Ward W. Creativity in young children. The Journal of Creative Behavior 8 Ware J. Kosinski K. Gandek B. Aaronson N. Apolone G. Bech P. Braizer J. Bullinger M. Kaasa S. Leplege A. Prietol L. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 51 11 Tseng C. The action of implementing creative dance in school education in Taiwan. Yfantopoulos J.

Quality of life and QALYs in the measurement of health. Archives of Hellenic Medicine 18 2 Read an excerpt of this book! Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview First published in Product Details. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. Beyond Methodological Nationalism: Research Methodologies for. Cross-border studies have become attractive for a number of fields, including international migration, studies of Cross-border studies have become attractive for a number of fields, including international migration, studies of material and cultural globalization, and history.

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This book revisits drawbacks of View Product. Cities, Nationalism and Democratization. Cities, Nationalism, and Democratization provides a theoretically informed, practice-oriented account of intercultural conflict and co-existence A full-length study of Cecil Sharp's successors in the world of morris dance has not been attempted. Douglas Kennedy shifted the emphasis from morris dance to social country dance and from the scholarly study of dance to the pragmatic use of dance as recreation. Even then, the weight of attention on dancing per se was a major source of friction within the constituents of the succeeding English Folk Dance and Song Society, which was more interested in the "song" component of the society.

The emphasis on recreational dance in the EFDSS is discussed by Kennedy himself ; and then by the authors of his eulogy, Roy Judge and Derek Schofield He has produced hundreds of freely-available morris dance tutorial and fact sheets that are based on his own extensive researches. More important, he has made them freely available in photocopy form, distributing them as he created them.

Eventually they were compiled by Anthony Barrand in a five-volume collection entitled Roy Dommett's Morris Notes, volume , although Dommett continues to generate one and two- page descriptions and summaries devoted to a multitude of morris topics. When he visited California and the Northwest in he deposited another pages of morris dance notes to the archives of a local morris community, Berkeley Morris, which were almost the equal of the first five volumes.

One certain indicator of the respect accorded to his research is the "indebtedness" of Lionel Bacon, the author of perhaps the single most important manual of morris dance instruction who said his gratitude to Roy Dommett's research and collecting "cannot be overstated" vii.

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Another important milestone in the history of morris dance following Sharp was the founding of the Morris Ring in , an association of morris dance teams that did not follow the regimen of Sharp's English Folk Dance and Song Society. The Ring took a dramatic step in disavowing allegiance to the system of morris dance accreditation that Sharp had instituted. They followed the template established by the 45 Last report was that the original documents were in the hands of Randall Cayford of the San Francisco morris community.

This concept was expanded to include a comprehensive printed collection of morris dance choreographies entitled A Handbook of Morris Dances, compiled largely by Lionel Bacon in described above. The Ring also emphasized the original, casual nature of morris dancing by recommending outdoor venues such as folk festivals, and local greens and commons.

Its founding in was not without controversy, partly because of its policy of barring female dancers. To counter this obvious exclusionary policy, female dancers formed their own organization, named the Morris Federation, in All three organizations are still in the midst of their early history and have yet to receive full-length studies, although Georgina Boyes has "pressed charges" against the Ring by outlining some of its controversial elements such as its alleged sexism in her book The Imagined Village However, Sharp's conclusions and results were tainted by his premises that were rooted in a pagan origin theory to be discussed presently.

After World War II, morris dance and English cultural studies in general, was influenced by the historicism of the New Left that had recently emerged. This profound shift in the cultural wind of English folk music and dance has recently been summarized by Michael Brocken in his ground-breaking publication, The British Folk Revival: The impact of this new style of thought was first felt in folk song circles, led by Ewan MacColl and Albert Lloyd. They mandated their folk clubs to restrict themselves to English traditional song, rejecting any folk music from America no matter how enticing, because of a perceived flood of unwanted American influences drowning English vernacular song traditions.

The "second revival" was foreshadowed in the morris dance world by the decentralisation of the authority of the English Folk Dance and Song Society by the Ring. The members of the Ring were determined to re-create the original localized nature of aural transmission Brocken, However, the revival morris dance teams continued to favour the theory first propounded by Sharp that morris dance was a vestige of a fertility ritual. The scholarly study of morris dance was an entirely different matter.

Perhaps the greatest name in the study of morris dance is Keith Chandler a, b 34 whose brilliant studies of Cotswold morris dancing is clearly founded on punctilious historical research. His occasional collaborator and equally passionate scholar, Mike Heaney, has also been in this vanguard. Rather than reinforce old stereotypes based on conceptions of idyllic lifestyles, Chandler methodically examined the records of a host of morris dancers and their cultural milieus by first establishing a gazetteer of names, locations, and anecdotal information from the informants, and then establishing trends and motivations.

John Forrest, also with the assistance of Heaney, has prepared the ground for and expanded understanding of morris dance by publishing studies of the development of early morris dance in his The History of Morris Dancing: Each of these books was presaged by a host of articles in journals, especially the Folk Music Journal, the annual publication of the English Folk Dance and Song Society.

A Third Revival There is a trace of a third revival of morris dance originating in the youth movement of the s. One of the markers of this faint cultural trait is the average age of morris dancers, which tends to be within the to year old bracket, dating from those early years. There is no specific literature to track the origins and movement of morris dancing among this group, aside from comments in Schofield 46, 82 and Brocken Chapter 6 in the context of folk song. In particular, see his monograph Morris and Matachin: a study in comparative choreography, Sheffield, UK: Each of them made significant appearances as youthful, fresh, and irreverent dancers in and This third revival seems to have ridden the crest of the world-wide movement that originated in America as the counterculture movement, popularly known as hippie culture.

In Britain the counterculture came about as a reaction to post-war austerity. The invention of the teenager came late to Britain and it was only in the 60s that young people had any money of their own to spend. They looked around and saw that everything was controlled by old people — those hypocrites intent on maintaining the status quo as if World War II had never happened They couldn't see how these people could spend their time taking drugs, making music, meditating and contemplating the void when Americans were being murdered by their own government in a nondeclared war. Miles, Morris dance teams were not usually comprised of hippies, but even today they share some of the same values, particularly the reverence for the environment and even Mother Nature as evidenced by their May Day celebrations, to be discussed shortly and an irreverent attitude to authority and standards of public behaviour.

In England, a cluster of significant media explorations occurred at somewhat the same time. The first of these moments was the hit record entitled Liege and Lief, the first rock interpretation of English folk music, arranged and composed by members of Fairport Convention in The key member of the band was Ashley Hutchings, who was aware of the intimate relationship between English folk song and folk dance, motivating him to generate another LP entitled Morris On produced in It had a profound effect on the morris community with its electric mix of rock techniques and music instruments playing traditional Cotswold dance melodies.

Ashley Hutching's musical innovations constituted a popular mainstream confirmation of the surging interest in morris dancing among this demographic. Another LP entitled The Complete Dancing Master followed shortly thereafter, presenting the other side of the English folk dance coin, Country dance. It is an affectionate look at the newly emerging revivals of new morris dance genres, Welsh Border and East Anglia Molly dancing. The LP was recorded with the same clever blend of narration and music as the other LPs.

A particularly interesting indication of the New Age tone of the Third Revival is found in the provocative and quirky movie The Wicker Man which presented the prevailing notion of the pagan origins of English folklore in The movie presented the idea that a remote village in the Hebrides was performing ancient pagan rituals of sacrifice for the purposes of insuring the arrival of the spring. In the end, it was he who was sacrificed in an enormous wicker statue, designed after an illustration from which was based on a record of a Druid rite seen by Romans at the time of Caesar Rogers, In the movie, six ritual dancers are seen in procession, although they are linked sword dancers rather than morris dancers.

There is also an extended scene involving the pagan elements of the May Pole with ingenuous comments about its phallic symbolism. In the interview that accompanies the DVD version, the actors and directors express sympathy with the basic idea of pagan, specifically alleged Celtic customs, believing that the observances represented a time when humanity was in tune with the seasons and their mysterious transformations. Morris Dance before the Revivals The history of morris dance in the centuries before its revival at the hands of Cecil Sharp and Mary Neal could be easily mistaken for an activity that was exclusively performed in the rural "outback" of England's "green and pleasant landscape".

This is certainly how Sharp found it when he accidentally stumbled across the Headington Quarry Men. However, scholars have discovered a scenario that was far more intertwined and complex between various levels of urban and rural society. Against the backdrop of Robert Malcomson's singular book, Popular Recreations in English Society, , discussions of morris dance are described as an uneasy movement back and forth between the bourgeoisie and 38 proletariat.

One of the most prominent scholars of Victorian-Era morris dance, Roy Judge, conducted a systematic study of the historical records of urban morris dance at the time, resulting in several articles , , that focused on a genre of morris dance in a highly urban, theatrical context — the Merrie England movement that idealized Renaissance England at the time of Elizabeth the first for the stage.

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Simultaneous with these faux stage productions was the existence of morris dance among the working classes. The entire age was swept up in the successes of Queen Victoria, and the popularity of English traditional customs in the latter half of the s is recognized in morris dance. Chandler b: 17 shows a graph of morris dance activity in villages that reflect the general enthusiasm for the age's successes, culminating in Queen Victoria's Golden jubilee in and Diamond Jubilee ten years later.

Other important background sources to the age are found in Clapp-Intyre , Jackson-Houlston and Scott who have investigated the appropriation of the music culture of the working class by the middle class, and Pearsall , , Russell and Bailey who present insider views of the same process in music halls and summer outdoor entertainments. Morris dance history tends to fall either before or after the Civil Wars 45 , the battle between religious factions within parliament leading to the execution 54 The reverence for this golden age is clearly evident in Canada, which has set aside a day in May as Victoria Day.

As a Puritan, in a country dominated by Puritans, he oversaw the banning of public pleasures such as the theatre, and even holidays such as Christmas. This turbulent period of time when "the world turned upside down" 55 greatly affected the course of morris dance and its related social mirror, Country Dance. Essentially, both were subject to suspicion and aversion, although neither was actually banned. Hutton and Underdown have delved into the cultural context in their provocative studies entitled The Rise and Fall of Merry England: the ritual year, and Revel, Riot and Rebellion: Popular Politics and Culture in England, , respectively.

These titles point to one of the themes in this thesis concerning morris and misrule. An important insight into the attitude of the Puritans towards dance is offered by Bruce Daniels , writing about the same generation of Puritans who were living in the New World. They followed the same strict code of behaviour as their English counterparts, including dance, in a delicate balance described by the author in the title Puritans at Play: Leisure and Recreation in Colonial New England.

Morris dance before and shortly after the Interregnum is explored in exemplary detail by John Forrest in his monumental study The History of Morris Dancing, The history encompasses the English Renaissance which describe morris dance in urban settings, ultimately in the courts. Both Heaney and Forrest shared this same research area, as seen in 55 This melody in the form of a ballad with an extensive history is discussed in Barbara Babcock's excellent collection of essays entitled The reversible world : symbolic inversion in art and society Another supplement is Jane Garry's overview of the literary references to morris dance, which extend from secondary dramatists and commentators to William Shakespeare, who was obviously well acquainted with morris dance.

The actual roots of morris dance are a matter of speculation because of a lack of hard evidence, but all the clues point to Spain and their moresco celebrations of the sixteenth century Cutting, The single most important scholar who has written on the general subject is Max Harris. The theatrical depiction of the battle of the moors and Christians in Spain radiated across Europe and the world.

Max Harris first investigated the historical and modern forms of moresco in an article in , and then expanded the information to include its most vibrant off-shoots in the New World, explored in his book Aztecs, Moors, and Christians: Festivals of Reconquest in Mexico and Spain. John Forrest generated an exciting article in in which he compared morris dance to morris-like activity in Central and SW North America, bringing an unusual perspective to the Spanish origins of morris dance, variously known as moresco and matachin.

Forrest established the fact that morris dance activity permeated countries other than England, particularly Latin America.

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Philip Heath-Coleman offered a cogent rejoinder to Forrest's conclusions that, on the surface, were critical of some of the conclusions, but in the end, supplemented the growing awareness of the Latin American off-shoots. Forrest continues to be an active researcher in Latin American moresco and told me in private correspondence that New World Morris has barely been explored, and represents the next great area of research.

The Spanish origins of moresco had a deep and lasting influence on 41 English and European linked sword dancing Stephen Corrsin, They lend credence to the theory that variations of moresco are found throughout Europe in an almost bewildering variety. Its main characteristics are its rowdy, carnivalesque ambience and its theatrical tenor involving staged performances of antagonists duelling with each other in a choreographed manner. The Hermeneutics of Morris Dance The study of morris dance usually focuses on its history but there is another diachronic theme that is central to an examination of morris dance — the hermeneutics of its symbolism.

This introspection is restricted to its observers and revivalists. The dancers in the villages and urban local communities continued to dance for money and enjoy themselves without any thought of its symbolism. The exegetical meaning of morris during the first revival was centred on its alleged vestigial Celtic paganism, as shown in the writings of Sharp and his successors Sharp, Some of the characteristics of the fertility interpretation resembled neo-pagan philosophies examined in England by Ronald Hutton and in America by Sarah M. Pike and Sabina Maglioco Both acknowledge the influence of Sir Frazer.

Examples from web sites and personal experience will illustrate how this exegesis is so entrenched in modern times. The pagan interpretation has been cogently reviewed and criticized by almost every author specializing in morris dance in the last 30 years, most notably by John Forrest and Ronald Hutton Frazer's theories of prophylactic magic had such a profound effect on European critical thought that even to this day they are debated and discussed Simpson and Roud, Frazer and the Cambridge Ritualists and an anthology compiled by Robert A.

Segal entitled The Myth and Ritual Theory A second and earlier exegetical meaning of morris was derived from a Victorian concept of Merrie England and has also been subject to intense criticism. Ronald Hutton's book The Rise and Fall of Merry England, mentioned earlier, explores the actual ground upon which the Victorian nostalgia was constructed Simpson and Roud, One of the most articulate expressions of the land of Merrie England was created by Arthur Sullivan of Gilbert and Sullivan fame in a ballet called Victoria and Merrie England.

Written in with the assistance of the lyricist and choreographer Carlo Coppi, it was highly successful, being mounted at 56 When The Golden Bough was first published, it was set out in two volumes. Between and he expanded his information to a vast collection of twelve volumes. Although Campbell never cited Frazer as one of his sources, they both used comparative mythology to uncover synchronic themes. Because of the enormous respect given to Campbell by the youth movement in the sixties, Campbell's legacies can be seen in the pagan mythology some morris dancers espouse.

It even met with enthusiastic approval by the Prince of Wales and other members of the English court. May Day celebrations and Morris dances are staged in Scenes II, one danced by men, the other by women. Again, great success followed its premier performance as it became the most-performed light opera of the twentieth century.

Dance As Education: Towards A National Dance Culture

His caustic story is often described as one of the first quintessential expressions of a s group of English writers and social commentators called the Angry Young Men. The publishers described the book thus: "Jim Dixon has accidentally fallen into a job at one of Britain's new redbrick universities. A moderately successful future in the History Department beckons.

Even to this day, mentions of Ye Olde England will often turn to invective by the man or woman on the streets of England. The Merrie England concept is often subsumed under the term Rural Idyll which has been thoroughly described and critiqued by Rapport and Overing The keynote studies of the slippery slopes of nostalgia and the selective memory of the past have been written by 58 A CD recording with extensive liner notes of the ballet was produced in by Marco Polo DD 8.

The back cover of his book reads "With Deliberate provocation Robert Hewison sets out to protect the present and the future of life in Britain from their most dangerous enemy: a creeping takeover by the past". These ad hoc explanations of the meaning of morris dance by modern morris dancers have resulted in harsh and biting criticism which will be reviewed in chapter 2. Recent literature that has addressed some of these conflicts of interpretations includes a set of essays entitled Step Change: New Views on Traditional Dance Boyes: , particularly the article by Elaine Bradtke whose title sums up the dilemma I am addressing: "Molly Dancing: A Study in Discontinuity and Change.

Her seminal study, The Imagined Village: Culture, Ideology, and the English Folk Revival, mentioned earlier, was a bombshell in morris dance circles because it challenged the most deeply held views of the morris establishment and generated heated debate with accusations of misogyny Boyes, A conflicted cultural expression that is parallel with morris dance is May Day celebrations which figure largely in the seasonal nature of morris dance.

A comprehensive bibliography of May Day information was compiled by Roy Judge and published in Judge has devoted most of his life to the study of May Day in England. Some of the high points of his studies were his examination of a May Day and morris dance in Oxford, England Judge, , the May Day rituals at the hands of Lord Tennyson and a lesser known author, Flora Thompson Judge, , and his faithful recreation of the facts about May Day celebrations performed by chimney sweeps Judge, Alun Howkins assessment of the historical records of Whitsuntide, morris dance's most important day, has also contributed important insights Howkins, , My personal observations and resultant notes of May Day in New Westminster, British Columbia, have allowed me to experience the conflict first hand as I compared their festivities with the May Day activities of the Vancouver morris community.

These insights will comprise a large part of chapter 2. Morris and Misrule It is my intention to introduce a new hermeneutic called "misrule" which accommodates several key aspects of historical morris dance. The study of misrule begins with Mikhail Bakhtin in his revolutionary study entitled Rabelais and His 46 World His concept was expanded by Stallybrass and White who introduced the technical term "transgression" to more accurately describe the cultural concept.

Natalie Zemon Davis and William R. Lafleur were inspired to find superlative examples of misrule in France and Japan, respectively. Several books have investigated this theme in English culture without specifically mentioning misrule, such as Revel, Riot and Rebellion , Rites and Riots Pegg, , and Maypoles, Martyrs and Mayhem Cooper and Sullivan, Some of the greatest theorists of English labour history, notably E.

Thompson , , and its successor, English Cultural Studies, provided glimpses into the carnivalesque atmosphere of many labour protests in the past. One of the greatest moments of English labour misrule, The Luddite Revolution, has been described by Kirkpatrick Sale who provided a detailed examination of some of the elements of misrule found in labour unrest and action. Even further back in time, the copious record of misrule during the renaissance in England is recounted in detail by Francois Laroque in his book entitled Shakespeare's Festive World: Elizabethan Seasonal Entertainment and the Professional Stage This brief overview of the misrule literature in England will be fully amplified in chapter 3 and 4.

It deals with the formation and transformation of symbolic forms. Obeyesekere, xix Preface "Yes, that's all very interesting, but what does it mean? People seemed to be more curious about the symbolism of the dance rather than its choreographic intricacies or musical accompaniment.

The first question would sometimes be followed by a hasty guess that the identity of the dance was Irish or some continental European country. Never England.

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All the movements and trappings of the dance teams were symbolic, but the basis of the symbolism could only be poorly guessed at. Dancers in general very rarely problematize their performance art because their direct experience of the dance provides sufficient justification and motivation for them. However, observers of dance sometimes do not share the same visceral knowledge. Ideally, a dance performance for just such an outsider is enhanced, or at least made comprehensible by providing an explanation of the elements of the dance "text" i.

Both text and context benefit from an explanation of their symbolism, perhaps the most potent component of the cultural event. What does the dance represent, in terms of emotional, intellectual and kinaesthetic content? How does it function as a marker of 48 a cultural movement, nation-state aspiration, or creative act? The interpretation s made available to the public would be in addition to the observer's and often performers own private interpretations, acquired through random associations, group affiliations, etc.

The acquisition of the meaning of symbols in a given dance, or choreology in general, ranges from systematic study in an educational setting, all the way to the most casual of encounters such as word-of-mouth, program notes or advertising. The analytical route to an understanding of a particular dance's symbolism can be accessed through the framework of Symbology, as developed by Victor Turner, or semeiotics, either in the form of semiotics as envisioned by Charles Peirce, or the theory of semiology developed by Ferdinand de Saussure.

Interpretations of the symbols of dance can exist entirely in the private world of the imagination, and within the public level of exegesis by dint of their shared, agreed-upon meaning. Semeiotikos is the root origin of my term, derived from classic Greek, meaning the study of interpretation of language as a system of signs. The operational dimension shows the simultaneous meaning between the symbol and its use.

The exegetic dimension consists of the explanation of the symbol's meaning by the actors within the system. The positional dimension explains the relationship between symbols. Series B, Biological Sciences, Vol. Exegesis is a term more commonly associated with religious academic studies where scholars examine texts and agree on an understanding of the meaning of a text.

The opposite for them is eisegesis which is a personal interpretation. Also see Dolgin and Kemnitzer Firth, Conversely, the non-choreographic elements of morris dance are rich and highly variegated, providing nuance and signification. Both domains are made significant by the symbolism that is attached to them by observers and participants. A taxonomy of some of these symbols will be detailed in the following pages.

The prevailing exegetic interpretation of the symbols of morris dance hangs on its alleged pagan i. The source of the signification of morris dance fertility symbols is allegedly found in European prehistory, confirmed by coincidences and parallels in contemporary Western folklore and non-Western ethnology. The common understanding of the symbolism of fertility is not supported by evidence or agreement by scholars of morris dance and anthropology, for that matter but the interpretation continues to permeate the culture at home and abroad.

Firth offered a sympathetic critique of Frazer's work on pp. Frazer was a source of some of the current exegetical meaning of morris dance. Benjamins Pub. I am applying the terms to an entirely different language from speech and its written forms. The implication of the latter nuance suggests that the dancers may not or may actually believe in the prophylactic powers of morris dance, but regardless of their intentions to be ironic, the theory they send up has taken on a life of its own in the media and the general public. Their tongue-in-cheek deliveries appear to be taken seriously, even if the morris dancers don't believe their own words.

Just to cite one small example among many, a reporter for the Western Morning News The hat is a very potent, pagan symbol". A second understanding of morris dance which is almost exegetic in its pervasiveness is largely found in the English media. It is negative, even hostile. The very symbols which generate meanings of fertility and fecundity or Merrie England in some sectors of morris dancing also contribute to a demeaning representation in the press.

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For example, the media sometimes question the behaviour of morris dancers as a dubious sexual trait. Sue Arnold, writing in the Observer A Reflexive View: Received Aural Knowledge When I began to participate in morris dance in , I found myself immersed in a very pleasurable hobby particularly suited to my new interest in English folk culture. The core activity, dancing, was new and rather foreign to me but the attraction of its English cultural context and the company of a group of like-minded men overcame my reservations.

Because of the rough-and-tumble ambiance and dynamics of morris dance, it never struck me how unusual it was to be participating in an all-male folk dance corps. However, as I learned more about dance cultures both high and low, I came to realize that a dance company comprised of over a dozen males was highly unusual in folk, popular, and classical dance circles.

From the very beginning, I trained to be both a dancer and musician, with no thought to applying my research skills to my new avocation. I had it in the back of my mind that I was living Mantle Hood's dictum of bi-musicality Hood, ; 65 Future research may uncover the same kind of invective directed at an ethnic dance somewhere in the world, but in my many examinations I have never encountered it.

If anything, most countries and ethnic groups take great pride in their representative dances and shower respect and praise on those who maintain them. The Vancouver men decided that the Bow Street dancers exhibited choreographic athleticism was well beyond the normal bounds of an everyman morris dancer but the dancing was traditional in every other way.

During the first few years, I learned about the symbolism, the meaning of morris dance through a process of intellectual osmosis from the veterans of the team. Mainly, I picked up my information from the announcements of a designated member of the team. While the dancers and musicians caught their breath between strenuous Cotswold-genre dances, a chosen veteran would announce the name of the next dance and the meaning of our morris dancing in general. I and the public and other new dancers in our team learned that we were dispensing fertility and luck reminiscent of the prophylactic magic conducted by aboriginal and pre-historic peoples.

The luck we were dispensing ranged from the good fortune of sunny weather instead of rain and wind, all the way to becoming pregnant, merely by witnessing morris dancing or perhaps being touched by a dancer. Our dance uniforms symbolized our role as bearers of fertility. The white pants and shirts represented the purity of our intentions while the colours of the baldrics and the ribbons on our hats and arms symbolized the fertility of the surrounding world that was coming into flower.

We were in harmony with nature's signs of the onset of seasonal fertility. The dances alternated between choreographies that featured sticks the length of baseball bats and handkerchiefs held loosely in each hand. The handkerchiefs that we held and flourished on regulated beats were used to flick the 67 Bi-musicality was a term coined to resemble those who were bi-lingual, not only in speech but in thinking. Mantle Hood believed correctly that a musician who learned a music instrument from a foreign land in addition to his own Western European Classical Music instrument would develop a triangulation of cognition which would inevitably enrich his or her perception of music in general.

The sticks that we pounded in unison on the ground, the bells that we wore around our ankles, and the very action of our stamping and dancing feet, encouraged the seedlings in the earth to awake and come forth. The statements regarding the team's prowess as agents of fertility and phenology were usually made in a joking, light-hearted manner by the roster of announcers.

The droll manner of presentation hinted at a tone of scepticism about the alleged powers, but the pronouncements were never disputed or problematized by any of my team mates. No other public explanations for the existence, history and symbolism of morris dance were ever given that I remember. Nevertheless, in Goidelic and Nordic countries there are vernacular May 1 St customs first observed in medieval times and continuing to this day. The celebration seems to actually extend from the 68 I have noticed over the years that the Vancouver Morris Men have blunted their commentaries and innuendos about fertility and luck, but they have not entirely abandoned them.

For example, a few members of the VMM continue to blacken the faces of nearby female audience members who interact with them when they dance Border Morris and Molly, two genres that involve the use of black make- up smeared all over the faces of the dancers. The reason given for the smudging, delivered and received with much laughter, is that it will bring luck, and even fertility. In Goidelic countries, the day came to be known as Beltane, following the vernacular terminology of Ireland and Scotland but not England first collected in The night featured bonfires and the following morning was given over to the gathering and displaying of tree and bush flowers Hutton, Central and Northern Europe refer to the eve of the day as Walpurgis.

Boniface in his work to convert Germany to Christianity. There seems to be no surviving nomenclature for the occasion that preceded the term Walpurgis. Certainly there is no relationship between the saint and her nameday. Thanks to its association with the legend of Faust, particularly as described by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Faust, part 1, and part 2, Faust was adapted for an opera setting by Charles Gonoud in , but before that Felix Mendelsohnn composed a secular cantata titled Die Erste Walpurgisnacht Opus 60 in , based on another description of Walpurgis by Goethe in a ballade of the same name