Rape Not Resulting in Death. In states applying Shariah law, rape committed by a married person carries the death penalty by stoning.
Irick execution: What happens on the day of lethal injection?
Robbery Not Resulting in Death. Under federal law, armed robbery or robbery resulting in harm to a victim carries the mandatory death penalty. Kidnapping Not Resulting in Death. According to collated news sources, kidnapping is a capital offense in at least 15 Nigerian states. In states applying Shariah law, a married person who commits adultery shall receive a mandatory death sentence. In states applying Shariah law, blasphemy against Islam carries the mandatory death penalty. In states applying Shariah law, homosexual sodomy carries the mandatory death sentence.
Under federal law, treason, conspiring to wage war against Nigeria, and treachery  may be punishable by death. Military Offenses Not Resulting in Death. Aiding or communicating with the enemy, cowardly behavior, mutiny, malingering,  armed robbery, and treason are crimes punishable by death on conviction by a court-martial. Other Offenses Not Resulting in Death. In states applying Shariah law, incest committed by a married person carries the mandatory death penalty by stoning.
Nigeria operates under a federal system with 36 states and a Federal Capital Territory FCT Abuja, which is the capital of the federation and seat of the federal government. While there are some federal criminal laws—such as the Robbery and Firearms Special Provisions Act—most criminal offenses fall under state jurisdiction. In addition, the 36 states and the FCT-Abuja have their own laws, which define individual crimes and punishments within the territory of the state. For the purposes of this research, we included any offense which is death-eligible in at least one state. Shariah rules of procedure establish that circumstantial evidence is prohibited and the conviction must be based on the testimony of four male witnesses or a confession.
Nigerian federal law prescribes the mandatory death penalty for a wide range of offenses. In states applying Shariah law, an act of terrorizing people for the purpose of robbery or other purposes hirabah is punished with mandatory death penalty when resulting in death. In states applying Shariah law, rape committed by a married person carries the mandatory death penalty by stoning.
Under the Criminal Code Act, armed robbery or robbery resulting in harm to a victim carries the mandatory death penalty. Armed robbery or robbery resulting in harm is also punishable with the mandatory death penalty pursuant to the Criminal Law of Lagos State of In states applying Shariah law, a married person who commits adultery shall receive a mandatory death sentence by stoning. In states applying Shariah law, blasphemy to the Prophet or Islam carries the mandatory death penalty.
Cruel & Unusual: The Death Penalty v. The Eighth Amendment
In states applying Shariah law, homosexual sodomy carries the mandatory death sentence by stoning. Under federal law, treason, conspiring to wage war against Nigeria, and treachery  may be punishable by death. A person convicted by a court-martial for mutiny, armed robbery, or treason is liable to the punishment of death. In states applying Shariah law, incest committed by a married person carries the mandatory death sentence by stoning.
Other offenses in Nigeria carry the mandatory death penalty because they either explicitly exclude discretion under any circumstances as is the case for hadd punishments or demand application of the death penalty without providing for alternative punishments.
The four prisoners executed in were convicted of either armed robbery or murder. Nigeria last executed three individuals in for armed robbery under the Robbery and Firearms Special Provisions Act. Nigeria executed Chiebore Onuoha in , who was 15 at the time of the offense and 17 at the time of execution.
Pregnant Women. Intellectually Disabled. There are no laws expressly prohibiting the execution of prisoners who are intellectually disabled at the time of their sentencing or at the time the death sentence is to be carried out. The psychiatrist wanted to be paid a fee, however, which no one could pay. Meanwhile, his client remained on death row with regular prison population. Mentally Ill. There are no laws expressly prohibiting the execution of prisoners who are mentally ill at the time of their sentencing or at the time the death sentence is to be carried out. A20, Rev.
P3, Rev. E-1, Oct. Armed Forces Act of Nigeria, Jul. Terrorism Prevention Act, , No. In Kano and Katsina states, the conditions for proving adultery or rape in respect of a married person include a valid marriage, consummation of marriage, and four witnesses or a confession. The crimes of sodomy and incest also require four male Muslim witnesses or a confession.
M-1, Jan. While more than 2, people were convicted and executed between and , the rate of executions dropped dramatically after the fall of the military government in May All four individuals still had appeals pending when they were executed, according to their lawyers, in violation of Nigerian and international law. In and , Nigeria voted against UNGA Moratorium resolutions, which call for the establishment of a moratorium on the use of the death penalty.
In January , for instance, former President Obasanjo issued a federal amnesty, ordering the pardon and release of prisoners who had been on death row for over 20 years and commutations to life imprisonment for those who had been on death row for 10 to 20 years. There is no legislative or executive moratorium on executions in Nigeria.
The last executions were carried out in In , the Supreme Court of Nigeria ruled that the execution of Nasiru Bello, which took place while his appeal was still pending before the Court of Appeal, was unconstitutional. State as long as it is imposed for a criminal offense by a court of law. State held that a prisoner sentenced to death by a High Court must exhaust all appeals before the President or Governor of a state can grant clemency. State, in which the Court of Appeal Enugu Division held that a presidential pardon should come only after all appeals are completed.
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Judgments from death penalty cases tried at the state level may also be available on the websites of the relevant courts. There is no government case law reporting and of the many case reporters published privately over the years, none has lasted long enough to become a single comprehensive source.
Death Penalty Database
According to the Nigerian Constitution, the President and state governors have the power to grant pardons and commute death sentences. Strategic attorneys typically apply for clemency in dates coinciding with national holidays or other celebrations. In Nigeria, individuals facing capital charges are tried before one High Court judge. High Courts are the trial courts of general jurisdiction.
Shariah courts and customary courts are the lowest courts and operate alongside state courts in the common law system. Further, judgments issued by military courts can be appealed to the Court of Appeal. Egbuoh outlines the requirements: 1 the new evidence must be such that it could not have been obtained for use at trial; 2 if admitted, the new evidence would have an important effect, not necessarily crucial, on the whole case; and 3 the new evidence must be creditable.
Adamu A. INT-2, Feb. State, p. State, pp. H-B, SC. State, S. H—B, SC. Administration of Criminal Justice Act of Nigeria, , secs.
I invite you to explore the links below:
Egbuoh, Supreme Ct. Harmonised Sharia Criminal Code, sec. Daniel E. In some prisons, death row inmates are restricted to their cells throughout most of the day, but in others prisoners are allowed outside their cells during the day. Many prisoners have died of treatable diseases—such as malaria and tuberculosis—because of inadequate medical facilities and treatment. Female inmates report facing threats of rape. I've often spoken offline about my oral qualifying examination in graduate school where one of my committee members specifically asked me to describe the molecular and physiological action of the three drugs then used in lethal injection.
I got the question correct and moved on in my Ph.
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This broad range of drugs could barely fit into 30 hours of lecture as it includes anesthetics, anti-anxiety drugs, antidepressants, antipsychotics, old sedative-hypnotic drugs, muscle relaxants that work on the brain or on the nerves at the muscle itself, and substances of recreational abuse, among others.
Within this diverse group of medicines are the drugs that have been used in prisoner executions in the United States since So I agreed to be interviewed yesterday by Jaclyn Cosgrove , health and medical reporter for The Oklahoman , about the drugs used in the so-called botched execution on Tuesday evening of convicted killer, Clayton Derrell Lockett. Lockett and the two others kidnapped Neiman, her friend, homeowner Bobby Bornt and his nine-month-old son, then brought them to a remote area. After a makeshift grave was dug, he then shot Neiman twice with a shotgun and ordered his accomplices to bury her while she was still alive.
The others were kept at a distance and ultimately taken home and released. Presciently, Branstetter reported earlier in the week that, "Bornt wrote a letter Feb.
He will just be strapped to the table and will go to sleep and his heart will stop beating. I was a kid in when convicted Utah murderer Gary Gilmore fought for his right to be executed by firing squad, the first U. And while I was being asked that exam question above while at the University of Florida, that state was still executing prisoners by electrocution just up the road apiece at the prison in Starke, Florida. The United States and Japan are the two remaining industrial democracies whose justice systems execute prisoners. As of today, 3, prisons are on death row across 35 states. Perhaps in order to seem more civilized, and to address the Eighth Amendment's prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment, Oklahoma's then-state medical examiner, Dr.
Jay Chapman, proposed in after Gilmore's execution that prisoners might better be dispatched using a lethal intravenous cocktail of therapeutically useful drugs. The purpose of these drugs is two-fold. First, they are used to induce death in a manner as painless as possible for the condemned. Second, the drug combination is also intended for the audience to view the process as peaceful and medical, without any twitching of the body, vocalizations, or any reflex actions that can still occur while one is unconscious. The three types of drugs and their purposes, as originally proposed and used in order, are as follows:.
I want to address these drugs in reverse order to illustrate why their successive administration is so important. Among the various salt ions that allow our bodies to function, one of the most tightly regulated is potassium. It's required for all manner of nerve signals, proper brain functioning, and for the constant beating of the heart. The body keeps most of our potassium in cells with only a small fraction present in our blood.
A large dose of potassium chloride introduced into the bloodstream, like that used in executions, would irreversibly paralyze the heart. If given alone without the other drugs, the high concentration of potassium chloride would be terribly painful, akin to fire or electricity coursing through the veins. Internist and Forbes contributor, Peter A. Lipson, M. These drugs are modern relatives of the South American arrow poison, curare. They work by blocking the chemical signals from the brain and spinal cord that tell our muscles to contract.
These drugs are most often used during surgery to allow a breathing tube to be inserted into the patient and to prevent involuntary muscle contractions during surgery. But the high dose used in executions is intended to stop the offender from breathing while also ensuring that the condemned appears completely still to the audience. If given without the other drugs, it would be like having the worst night terror imaginable. You would experience oxygen hunger from being unable to breathe but be unable to move, all while being fully conscious.
Barbiturates were first created in the early s and were used intravenously throughout much of the last century to induce anesthesia, producing a loss of consciousness and an inability to perceive pain. They were then usually followed by an inhaled anesthetic for the maintenance of anesthesia. At lower doses, barbiturates were used to relieve anxiety in the years before the introduction of the safer benzodiazepine drugs: Librium chlordiazepoxide and Valium diazepam.
For anesthesia, the barbiturates have largely been replaced by other safer drugs, usually in a combination that includes following: midazolam Versed , an opioid like fentanyl, and a general sedative-hypnotic drug like propofol. If given alone without the other drugs, a high dose of barbiturate alone could kill a person just fine. But it would take anywhere from 30 to 60 minutes. In fact, many drugs will cause death within an hour or two. However, corrections officials sought for execution to be rapid. This is why the sedating barbiturate was used in combination with the neuromuscular blocker and the potassium chloride.
In recent years, the one remaining U. Remember that none of our European allies have capital punishment.