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Published by Outlook Verlag About this Item: Outlook Verlag, More information about this seller Contact this seller 8. More information about this seller Contact this seller 9. More information about this seller Contact this seller It is not in my power to give a detailed account of ail the transactions of this important year. The trade had naturally rapidly increased the money brought by the emigrants from Portugal, had called forth greater exertions and speculations in commerce and in October a public bank was chartered in Rio, with a capital of from seventy to eighty thousand pounds sterling.

Journal of a Residence in Chile During the Year 1822, and a Voyage from Chile to Brazil in 1823

The establishment of a regular gazette naturally took place, for the speedier dissemination of whatever tidings might arrive from Portugal, where lay the possessions and the interest ofthe court and the new people of Brazil and though the press, of course, did not boast ofmuch freedom, nor indeed would its freedom at that time have been of any consequence, it formed the first step towards awakening rational curiosity and that desire for reading, which has become not only a luxury, but even a necessary, in some countries, and which makes a rapid and daily progress here.

On the arrival of the court many of the old Creole families hastened to the capital to greet their sovereigns. The sons and the daughters of these marr ied into the noble houses of Portugal the union of the two nations became intimate and permanent and the manners and habits of the Brazilians more polished. Jose de Souza Continho, Conde de Redondo.

The beginning of was marked by an event of some importance. The court of Rio, therefore, resolved to send a body of troops under Colonel Manoel Marquez, to the mouth of the Oyapok. The English ship of war, Confiance, commanded by Captain Yeo, accompanied him, and their combined attack forced the enemy to surrender on the of 12th January. The terms were honourable to both parties and among the articles 1 observe the 14th, by which it is stipulated, that the botanic garden, called the Gabrielle, shall not only be spared, but kept up in the state of perfection in which it was given up.

War is so horrible, that a trait like this, in the midst of its evils, is too pleasing to be over-looked. The rest of the year passed in Brazil in quiet though important Sir SydneySmithhad followedthe Portuguesecourt to Rio, lessas commanderof the Britishnaval forcein thoseseas, than as the protectorof the Braganzas. Lord Strangfordhad resumedhischaracterofambassador. Meanwhile the Portuguese arms were employed in another quarter of the world.

The extensive dominions of Portugal in the east Yet had fallen off one by one, as pearls from a broken thread. For twenty years past, it, in common Macao was still Portuguese. The Portuguese were by this treaty to furnish six vessels of from sixteen to twenty-six guns, but being in want of bail and other stores they were supplied liberally by the English East India Company's factory and the result was, that after three months' resistance, the pirates surrendered their ships, and promised to become peaceable subjects, and the people of Macao performed a Te Deum in honour of their success; but twelve months elapsed ere the happy tidings reached Brazil.

The great European interests of Brazil and its sovereign might have been forgotten in the country itself, during the year , so tranquil was it, but for the packets which brought across the Atlantic the d. This was followed in the month of Jvfay by a formai notice from Lord Strangford, that the British Parliament had voted , In fact, England had now taken the battle into her own hands, as she had decidedly the interest in greatest opposing France; and the royal house of Brawas at leisure to devote its whole attention to its American ganza dominions.

Several well appointed detachments were sent into different parts of the country for the purpose of repelling the Indians, whose inroads had destroyed several of the Portuguese settlements, of forming roads to connect the different provinces with each other, and, above ail, of furthering the graduai civilisation of the Indian tribes. Strict orders were given the commanders to proceed peaceably, especially among the friendly Indians but such as were refractory were to be pursued even to To extermination. The party that was sent up the Rio Doce discovered one hundred and forty-four farms that had been ruined by the Indians, and which they restored they formed a friendly treaty with several tribes of Puri Indians, whom they found aiready settled in villages, to the number of nearly a thousand.

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That savages may eat their enemies taken in battle 1 do not doubt under the circumstances of savage life revenge and retaliation are sweet but 1 doubt their eating the dead found after the battle, and 1 doubt their hunting men, or devouring women and children. The fisheries off the coast were attended to, and that of the island of St. Catherine and on the same particularly island sumcient experiments were made upon the growth of hemp, to provethat time and industry only were wanting to furnish great quantities of that valuable article of a very good quality.

The year was the last of the life and ministry of the Conde de Linhares, whose views were au directed to the good of the country. The Botecudos are represented as carrying off this flesh ia baskets. He had formed roads and planned canals he had invited colonies, which indeed afterwards sunk but they left behind them some of their ingenious practice, and some seeds of improvement which have not utThe possibility of navigating both the St. Matthew's terly perished.

A botanical garden had been formed, in which the spices of the East were cultivated with success and perhaps as the greatest possible good, a public library had been formed, and its regulations framed on the most liberal principles. But they aU continued tranquil for the present, and seemed to attend only to domestic imNew buildings, both for use and omament, arose in the provement. Maranham and Pernambuco improved their harbours. Bahia, besides the handsome theatre opened there in , paved her streets and at Rio, a subscription of 30, crusadoes was raised towards beautifying the palace square, completing the public gardens, and draining the campo de Sta.

In , some disputes arose between the court of Rio and England on account of the slave trade. Many of the salaries. It was wisely done at this juncture, to take offthe public attention from such vexations by a measure at once just and gratifying to the of the Brazilians an edict of the 16th pride by of December, Meantime the victories of the allies in Europe, having caused the exile of Napoleon to Elba, the necessity for an English guardian squadron at Rio had ceased and accordingly the British establishment was broken up, and the stores sold, and the family of Braganza, again independent of foreign aid, began to renew its connections with the other courts of Europe.

These negotiations suffered some little interruption from an event which had long been expected, namely, the death of the queen, on the 20th of March, , whose state, both of body and mind, had long precluded her from ail share in public affairs. In the month of June, the Marquis Marialva was received at Paris as ambassader of Portugal and Brazil, and shortly afterwards the way having been prepared by an inferior minister, he went to Vienna, to negotiate a marriage between Don Pedro de Alcantara, Prince of Portugal and Brazil, and the Archduchess Maria LeoOn the 28th of November, poldina, which was happily efected.

The line of battle ship Joam VI. But the frontier of Brazil to the southward now began to feel the effect of those disturbances which had long agitated Spanish South America. Meantime the discontents in the northern provinces had broken out into open insurrection, in the captaincy of Pernambuco.

They remembered besides, that their own exertions, without any assistance from the government, had driven out those masters, and had restored to the crown the northern part of its richest domain. Such were the exciting causes of the insurrection of , in Pernambuco, which threatened for many months the peace, if not the safety of Brazil. The example of the Spanish Americans had no doubt its weight, and a regular plan for obtaining independence was formed, troops were raised and disciplined, and Recife being secured, fortifications were begun at Alagoas and at Penedo.

On the 6th of May they left that position, and meeting the royalists under Mello, suffered a complete defeat. At this juncture Luiz do Rego Barreto was appointed by the government at Rio to the office of captain-general of Pernambuco. He was a native of Portugal, and had served with distinction under Lord Wellington.

Of a firm and vigorous mind, and jealous of the honour of a sodier, he was perhaps too little yielding to the people and the temper of the times. This year the ministry underwent a-complete change. My opportunities of information were too few; my habits as a woman and a foreigner never led me into situations where 1 could the acquire necessary 1 wish only to mark the course cf events, and in as knowledge. That year opened at Rio with unusual testivity. Portugal and Africa and India, China and Brazil, ail appeared to do Algarve, to the illustrious Music, in which the taste of the homage stranger.

On the 6th pf February the coronation of his majesty, John VI. The following year was not less tranquil. They had now the heir of their kingdom born among them, a circumstance which they were disposed to hail as a pledge that the seat of government would not be removed from among them. Meantime the peace in Europe had not brought back ail the tranquillity that was expected from it.

In vain did the old government expect to step back into exactly the same places they had occupied before the revolutionary war. The Cortes had assembled in Spain. Naples had been convulsed by an attempt to obtain a constitution similar to that promulgated by the Spanish Cortes and now Portugal began to feel the universal impulse. Lisbon and Oporto were both the seats of juntas of provisional government, and both assembled Cortes to take into consideration the framing of a new constitution, and the reformation of ancient abuses.

Indeed it was not to be expected that Brazil should remain unconscious of the proceedings of EuPernambuco rope. The provinces were ail more or less agitated. A considerable party had assembled at about thirty-six leagues from' Olinda. The royalist troops were sent out against them and were victorious, after an action of six hours, in which they lost six officers and 19 men killed, and wounded. Bahia was far from tranquil. The list of ministers was first read, and each individually approved.

At one of the centre windows the King presently appeared, and confirmed ail that the Prince had promised in his name, declaring at the same time his perfect approbation of every thing that had been done. It would be curious to investigate the feelings of princes on occasions so momentous to themselves and to their people. Joam VI. Ail his feelings and prejudices were in favour of the ancient order of things, and this day those feelings and prejudices had been obliged to bend to the spirit of the times, to a wide-spread desire for freedom, to every thing, in short, most contrary to the ancient system of continental Europe.

Thus was a most important revolution brought about without The junta occupied bloodshed, and almost without disturbance. Thornton, England and France, waited on His Majesty. The members of the diplomatie body scarcely concern But circumstances which that they were busy. Grimaldi, and Ma! An intimation of what had taken place at Bahia was immediately forwarded to Luiz do Rego at Pernambuco, who assembled the magistrates, the troops, and the people, on the 3d of March, in Recife, and there, along with them, solemnly took the oath to adhere to the constitution a measure which gave universal satisfaction.

About the same time, several of the towns in the Comarca of Ilheos also took the oaths to maintain the constitution; and it appeared evidently that the whole country was equally desirous of a change, in hopes of relief from the vexations it had so long suffered under. But the agitation of the capital was by no means at an end.

Journal of a Voyage to Brazil: And Residence There During Part of the Years 1821, 1822, 1823

Disputes arose concerning the election of deputies to the cortes, which, however, ended in adopting the method laid down in the Spanish constitution. The troops found it necessary to publish a declaration, denying that they had any factious views when they assembled on the 26th of February, and alleging that they appeared as citizens anxious for the rights of the whole community.

Every thing now appeared to proceed in quiet. But the members of that assembly met again on the 22d, many of whomhad no legal title to be present, andproceeded to propose to stop the ships prepared for the King's return to Portugal. About thirty persons were killed, many more were wounded and The the whole city was filled with an indescribable consternation. That very day he made over the government of that country to the Prince, with a council to be composed of The Conde dos Arcos, Prime Minister.

Brigadier Canler, Minister of War. The ministers who advised this step, acted cruelly towards the government they left behind. And, as 1 judge it right, in the present circumstances, that ail should from this time understand what are the objects of public administration which 1 have principally in view, 1 lose no time! It will be highly agreeable to me to anticipate ail such benefits of the constitution as shall be compatible with obedience to the laws. Public education, which now demands the most especial attention of the government, will be provided for by every means in my power.

And in order that the commerce and agriculture of Brazil may be in a prosperous state, 1 shall not cease to encourage whatever may favour these copious sources of national riches. But this great re-emigration produced evils of no common magnitude in Brazil. It is computed that fifty millions of crusadoes, at least, were carried out of the country by the Portuguese returning to Lisbon.

A great proportion of specie had been taken up in exchange for government bills on the treasuries of Bahia, Pemambuco, and But these provinces, from the revolution in February, Maranham. His first care was to examine into and redress causes of grievances particularly those arising from arbitrary imprisonment and vexatious methods of collecting taxes.

The great duties on salt conveyed into the interior, were remitted. Something was done towards improving the condition of the barracks, hospitals, and schools. Books were allowed to be imported duty free, and every thing that could be effected under the circumstances, was done by the Prince for the advantage of the people, and to preserve or promote public tranquillity.

But the question of the independence of Brazil had now come to be publicly agitated, and out of it arose several others. Was it to be still part of the Portuguese monarchy, with a separate supreme jurisdiction civil and criminal under the Prince? But as soon as it was possible, his royal highness's government began payments by instalments, which are still going on, notwithstandinT the total change of government.

This is highly honourable. Meanwhile the more distant provinces had acknowledged the constitution. At St. Catherine's, though were less violent, yet the refusing to admit a new governor who had but the political been sent, was decidedly an act of insubordination serious nature, but agitations at St. Paul's were not only of a more had more important results than those of any other province. This truly patriotic citizen and accomplished scholar, was a native of the country, and had now been residing in it some years, after having studied, As soon as he was named, a detravelled, and fought in Europe.

The Archpriest Felisberto Gomes Jardin. The Rev. Joao Ferreiro da Oliviero Bueno. Antonio Lecto Perreiro da Gama Lobo. Daniel Pedro Muller. Francisco Ignacio. Manoel Rodriguez Jordao. Andre da Sylva Gomez. Francisco de Paulo Oliviera. Nicolao Perreira de Campos Noguerros. Antonio Maria Quertim. Martin Francisco de Andrada. The Paunstas are among the most hardy, generous, and enlightened of the Brazilians. Their country is in the happiest climate.

The mines of St. Paul's are rich, not only in the precious, but in the useful metals. Iron, so rich as to yield 93 per cent. The manufactures of that province are far before any others in Brazil. Corn and cattle are as well as there, other plenty every species of Brazilian produce. Some armed vessels were, however, speedily despatched from Rio, and a detachment of militia from St.

Many ofthe captaincies had, upon swearing to maintain the constitution, spontaneous]y adopted that measure. Such was the state of Brazil, generally speaking, on our arrival in that country, on the 2lst of September, What 1 have ventured to write is, 1 trust, correct as to facts and dates it is merely intended as an introduction, without which, the journal of what passed while 1 was in Braxil would be scarcely intelligible.

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Surely the few years added to my age have not done this? May 1 not rather hope, that having seen lands whose monuments are all history, and whose associations are an poetry, 1 have a higher taste, and more discriminating eye? To them it was new :o see the palm, the cyand the with the press, yucca, together maize, banana, and sugarcane, sunounded by vineyards, while the pine and chesnut clothe the! My maid and 1 went in a bad sort of palankeen, tuough convenient for thcse roads, which are the worst 1 have seen however, the view made up for the difficulty of getting to it.

We spent a very happy day at the hospitable country house of Mr. The boys,. The ceiling is of cedar, richly carved, and reminds me of some of the old churches at Venice, which present a style half Gothic half Saracenic. Near the church a public garden has lately been formed, and some curious exotic trees placed there with'great success.

Of late years superstition has been used as an instrument of no small power in revolutions of every kind. Even here it has played its part. A small chapel, dedicated to St. Sebastian, had been removed by the Portuguese government in order to erect a marketplace, where ail articles of daily consumption were to be sold, a small tax being levied on the holders of stands. Sebastian begun. The voluntary labourers worked no more, and no subscription adequate to the hire of workmen to complete it has yet been raised so that the new St. Sebastian's stands roofless, and the officiating priest performs his masses with no other canopy than the heavens.

Other and better consequences have, however, arisen from the revolution of November. The grievances of the inhabitants of Made:ra were severe. Though the humourous songs were applauded suniciently, yet the plaintive and pathetic seemed the favourites; and the chorus to the Death of Wolfe was swelled by many voices. Oh, who shall say that fame is not a it blesses him who earns, and It is twice blessed real good Here, on the those who give, to parody the words of Shakspeare. The life of a seaman is the essence of poetry; change, new combinations, danger, situations from almost deathlike calm, to the maddest combinations of horror every romantic feeling called forth, and every power ofheart and intellect exercised.

We anchored in forty fathoms water with our chain-cable, as the bottom is very rocky, excepting where a pretty wide river, which, though now dry, rolls a considerable body of water to the sea in the rainy season, has deposited a bed of black mud. There are many rocks in the bay, with from one to three fathoms water, and. Dance, the second lieutenant, and 26th. We landed at the Puerto di Oratava, several miles from the villa it'is defended by some small batteries, at one of which is.

The road is rough, but has evidently once been made with but the winter some pains, and paved with blocks of porous lava rains have long ago destroyed it, and it does not seem to be any body's business to put it iri repair. The Chinerfe of the Guanches. The first quarter of a mile on either hand presented a scene so black and stony, that 1 was surprised to learn that we had been passing through corn iand the harvest was over, and the stubble burned on the ground.

The produce here is scanty but being so near the We saw the port, it repays the labour and expense of cultivation. Here, the sago-palm, platanus, and tamarind, as well as the flowers and vegetables of the north of Europe, flourish so well as to promise to add permanently to the riches of this rich island. The food of the common people consists chiefly of Polenta, or maize flour, used nearly as the Scotch peasants use their oatmeal, in cakes, brose, or porridge, which last is suffered to grow cold, and then most comAfter the maize, potatoes are the monly eut in slices and toasted.

After a pleasant but hot ride, we arrived at the villa about noon, and went to the house of Senor Don Antonio de Monteverde, who accompanied us to M. In July, , one half of its enormous crown fell the wound is plaistered up, the date of the misfortune marked on it, and as much care is taken of the venerable 1 sat down vegetable as will ensure it for at least another century.

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Galway the following history of the family ofits owner, which a little ski!! Meantime, during the early period of the revolution, he married and his only child, a daughter, was born. But neither the validity of the union nor the legitimacy of the child was ever questioned and the Marquis Franqui returning to his native country, brought with him his daughter, introducing and treating her as his heiress. She appeared to be received as such By his family and at his death he appointed trustwbrthy guardians to her and her estates, one of whom is her husband's father.

Meantime the court receives the rents the garden, the chiefornament ofthe town, is running wild, and the house is deserted. On our return from the garden to Don Anton io's house, we were most kindly received by his wife and daughter, the latter of whom It was, played a long and difficult piece of music most excellently. No more than one convent of each denomination is allowed to subsist, and great checks are put on the profession of new members.

As to the revolution here, the inhabitants had known from authentic though not official autborlty of what had taken place in the mother country, three weeks before they received any notifiWhen notice did arrive, the cation from either court or cortes.

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The Canary Islands boast of two bishoprics, both of which are The only printing press now vacant, yet have not one newspaper. We returned to the port by a longer road than that by which we left it. In the hedges, the boys, with no small delight, gathered fine ripe black-berries, which were growing among prickly pear and other tropical plants. They seem gentle and lively, not much darker than the natives of the south of Europe and if there be a mixture of Guanche blood, it is said to be traced in the high cheek-bones, narrow chins, and slender hands and feet which m a few districts seem to indicate a different race of men.

Halfway down the hill, we entered a ravine, the dry bed of a winter torrent, where there were rue, lavender, prickly pear, hypericum, and spurge but not a blade of grass had survived the summer's drought. Shortly aiter we at Mr. As 1 had lady, Spaniard in old Scotch seen some houses, the best bed-chamberservedas. Neither the pine-apple nor water-melon grow in Teneriffe, but abundance of the latter are brought from Grand Canary.

Ail the common garden fruits of Europe flourish here but This island, or at least too little attention is paid to horticulture. It was sunset befor e we reached the boats that were to conveyus to the ship and we had some difficulty both in getting off and in going alongside of the frigate, owing to the great swell. To-day, some of our new friends, both Spanish and English, came on board; but the swell was so great, that only one escaped sea-sickness.

During the early times of the Spanish government of the island, their sepulchres were carefully concealed by the natives now, intermarriage with their conquerors, and consequent change of religion and habits, have rendered them careless of them, and they are, generally speaking, really forgotten, and only discovered accidentally in planting a new vineyard, or ploughing a new field. This morning left the still vext" bay of Oratava, and before sun-set saw Palma and Gomera. Betancour, a Frenchman, took possession of them for Spain; but the natives were brave, and it cost both the Spaniards and Portuguese, who possessed them by turns, much blood and treasure to conquer the country and exterminate the people, for their wars ended in nothing less.

Passed the island of Hierro or Ferro, the old first meridian which honour, 1 presume, it enjoyed from having been considered as the most western land in the world until the discovery of America. We were very close to it, and ail agreed that we never saw so hardlooking and inaccessible a place. We saw some fine woods, a few scattered houses, and one village perched upon a hill, at least feet above us.

This fish has four horns, like a snaH, the shell is very beautifully tinted with purple, and there is a spongy substance attached to the fish which 1 thought assisted it to swim it is larger in bulk than the whole fish. One of them gave out fully a quarter of an ounce of purple fluid from the lower part of the fish. Our school for the ship's boys is now fairly established, and does Mr. He is most anxious to make them fit to be officers and seamen in their profession, and good men and gentlemen both at sea and on shore.

Happily they are ail probut if G— should disappoint us, 1 never will believe in mising youthful talent, industry, or goodness more. Our days pass swiftly, because busily. Sea and sky must be know the laws by which their great changes or chances are regulated. To-day a letter, containing a sketch of the intended festival, with thanks for permission to keep it,was sent into the cabin. Perhaps they may be right, and perhaps in time it may be forgotten but will it be better that it should be so?

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Thomas Clark, quarter-master, J. Ware, ibrecastle, "W. Knight, W. Sullivan, 2d captain main-top, C. Brisbane negro , J. Thompson, gunner's mate, J. White, forecastle, W. Sinclair, captain fbrecastie, J. Smith, J. Forster, Michael Jaque, Neptune. Amphitrite's Son. Triton's Horse. High Sheriff. Barber's Mates. Gaggin, W. Bird, captain fore-top, Nine assistants.

Duncan, boatswain's mate, J. Clark, "J. Leath, "J. Speed, W. Lundy, W. Williamson, J. Williams, Eight Sea-horses. Chief Constable. Judge Advocate. G—— in propleasure 1 can feel in the command of this ship, will be moting the happiness and comibrt of the whole of Britain's sons on board the Doris. Believe me your sincere friend, THOS. Doris, at Sea, Sept. To Britain's Sons, H. As the Arabs, an astronomical people, have it, it has probably some reference to their now-forgotten worship of the heavenly bodies.

Like us, they set on'fire some combustible matter or other, and let it Hoat away, but they add some food to it, as if there had once been a sacrincc accompanying the festival. Such, at least, 1 have been assured by several gentleman well acquainted with the Arab traders in the Eastern sea, is their practice.

We have done nothing but sail on with very variable weather, for the last thirteen days. From world to world our steady course we keep, Swift as the winds along the waters sweep, Mid the mute nations of the purple deep. The next morning we found the temperature of the sea, at the surface, two degrees higher than that Last night at 8 P.

About six o'clock P. The captain immediately went on deck, anu Neptune What ship? First came Triton mounted as before, then a company of sea-gods or constables dressed in oakum and swabs, but having their arms and shoulders bare, excepting the paint which bedaubed them. Neptune with trident and crown, Amphitrite by his side, and their sort at their feet, appeared in a car drawn by eight sea-horses, and driven by a sea god: the train followed in the persons of the lawyers, The whole pageant was well dressed, and barbers, and painters.

After the progress round the decks, a conference with the captain, and a libation in the form of a glass of brandy, to which the god and goddess vied with each other in devotion, the merriment began. None but women escaped, and that only by staying in my cabin.

The officer of the watch, sentries, quartermasters, and such as are absolutely necessary to look after the ship, are of course held sacred so that some order is still preserved. It seemed really that madness ruled the hour but at the appointed moment, halfpasteleven, all ceased: by noon, every body was at his duty, the decks were dried, and the ship restored to her wonted good order. The whole of our gunroom officers dine with us, and we flatter ourselves that we shall end the day as happily as we have begun it.

Friday, September 21st. At length we are in sight of the coast of Brazil, which here is low and green, about two degrees to the northward of the point first discovered by Vincente Pinzon, in The roadstead is quite open, and we nnd here a very heavy swell. It is not wonderful that our guns were neither answered nor noticed last night. They were, however, repulsed by the royal troops, under the governor, with the loss of fourteen killed and thirty-five prisoners, while the royalistshad two killed, and seven wounded.

This morning the alarm of the town's people was increased by finding several armed men concealed in the belfreys of the churches, whither also they had conveyed several stands of arms. Luiz do Rego is a soldier, and attached to the royal cause. He served long with the English army in Portugal and Spain, and, if 1 mistake not, distinguished himHe is rather a severe man, and, self at the siege of St.

Great part especially among the soldiers, more feared than loved. The towns-people have been formed into a militia, tolerably armed and The town is pretty well supplied with mandioc flour, trained. It was agreed that Graham should become the tutor of the young Princess Maria da Gloria , so when she reached London, she just handed over the manuscripts of her two new books to her publisher Journal of a Residence in Chile during the Year And a Voyage from Chile to Brazil in and Journal of a Voyage to Brazil, and Residence There, During Part of the Years , , , illustrated by herself , collected suitable educational material, and returned to Brazil in She stayed in the royal palace only until October of that year, when she was asked to leave due to courtiers' suspicion of her motives and methods courtiers seem to have feared, with some justice, that she intended to Anglicize the princess.

During her few months with the royal family, she developed a close friendship with the empress, Maria Leopoldina of Austria , who passionately shared her interests in the natural sciences. After leaving the palace, Graham experienced further difficulties in arranging for her transport home; unwillingly, she remained in Brazil until , when she finally managed to arrange a passport and passage to England. Her treatment by palace courtiers left her with ambivalent feelings about Brazil and its government; she later recorded her version of events in her unpublished manuscript "Memoir of the Life of Don Pedro".

His son Pedro inherited the throne, but preferred to remain Emperor of Brazil and thus abdicated the Portuguese throne in favour of his six-year-old daughter within two months. After her return from Brazil in , her publisher John Murray asked her to write a book about the famous and recently completed voyage of HMS Blonde to the Sandwich Islands as Hawaii was then known.

King Kamehameha II and Queen Kamamalu of Hawaii had been on a visit to London in when they both died of the measles , against which they had no immunity. The resulting book Voyage Of The H. Graham wrote it with the help of official papers and journals kept by chaplain R. Rowland Bloxam; there is also a short section based on the records of naturalist Andrew Bloxam.

Vol 31. No. 61

Graham and Callcott married on his 48th birthday, 20 February In May of that year, the Callcotts embarked upon a year-long honeymoon to Italy , Germany and Austria , where they studied the art and architecture of those countries exhaustively and met many of the leading art critics, writers and connoisseurs of the time.

In Maria Callcott ruptured a blood vessel and became physically disabled. She could no longer travel, but she could continue to entertain her friends, and could continue her writing. In the mids her description of the earthquake in Chile of started a heated debate in the Geological Society, where she was caught in the middle of a fight between two rivalling schools of thought regarding earthquakes and their role in mountain building. As this was one of the first detailed eyewitness accounts by "a learned person" of an earthquake, he found it interesting enough to publish in Transactions of the Geological Society of London in One of her observations had been that of large areas of land rising from the sea, and in that observation was included in the groundbreaking work The Principles of Geology by the geologist Charles Lyell , as evidence in support of his theory that mountains were formed by volcanoes and earthquakes.