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Covers - Performances of a song with the same name by different artists. Ancestors in Heaven Vol. Miracles 2. This is a factory-sealed vinyl LP original of New-sealed Item is sealed and in new-unused condition. Take your acoustic playing outside of the box with extended techniques for classical and fingerstyle guitar. This is the only room where students are allowed to experiment with extended techniques on a piano without obtaining prior permission. During this time, torture was often used to extract confessions, or obtain the names of accomplices or other information about crimes.

Romantic in form and tone, classic guitars are a distinguished member of the string family. Ostinato - A repeated phrase. Some key ideas of this book have become common. The Angel Academy of Art, Florence, offers an intensive programme in traditional drawing and painting. The term "classical Greece" refers to the period between the Persian Wars at the beginning of the fifth century B. Meditation is an approach to training the mind, similar to the way that fitness is an approach to training the body.

Click to hear guitar techniques scale patterns 57 The last single accent falls on the fourth note of each four-note group. The Orchestra. Start improving your skills with technique preformance videos. This guitar boasts great action, making it one of the easiest playing Oscar Schmidt string guitars available. The semantics of defined predicates and function-symbols is similar. For general questions about classical education methods, home education issues, teaching techniques, readiness, supplemental. Included are also some tips, tricks, hints and interesting points of note to help the beginning conductor.

We extended the picture from the setting of propositional to the one of first-order intuitionistic logic, where the exp-log decomposition provided us with an intuitionistic hierarchy of formulas analogous to the classical arithmetical hierachy; although the classical arithmetical hierarchy exists since the s, a correspondingly versatile. This book can also serve as a useful reference guide for professional orchestra conductors, teachers of group string classes, and private studio teachers. Is an integration of many of the best ideas, techniques, and approaches to music education.

By using the site you are accepting the use of cookies. How the string instruments are played and the techniques that are used determines which musical effects they will produce. Find complex Jazz chords or simple triads easily. Is a philosophy of education and a concept of teaching. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. These landscapes were influenced by classical antiquity and sought to illustrate an ideal landscape recalling Arcadia, a legendary place in ancient Greece known for its quiet pastoral beauty.

The three dominant literary types in this book are apocalypse, prophecy, and epistle. Above all, his works distinguish themselves from those of any prior composer through his creation of large, extended architectonic structures characterized by the extensive development of musical material, themes, and motifs, usually by means of "modulation", that is, a change in the.

Select five areas where math is. But it seemed as though the harp was primarily a prominent solo member of the orchestra rather than the center of attention. We play the "natural" guitar harmonics at the 12th, 7th, and 5th frets. Note: This book was written in , with some changes since. There are numerous challenges to singing contemporary classical vocal music including a number of harmonic, melodic, rhythmic, and formal elements not commonly seen in the western Classical or Romantic era compositions.

A development that significantly affected Romantic music was a. Automated deduction techniques had to be complemented with specific algorithmic techniques , loosely inspired by McAllester's notion of local theories , to decide the so-called intruder deductionproblem in the case of several equational theories. Key developments in linear robust control theory are extended to the nonlinear context using L2-gain techniques.

It is larger than the violin, and its lowest note is a perfect 5th lower than the violin. If your goal is to inspire students to practice and love an orchestral instrument, why would you encourage them to be snobby about the rep, the conductor, or the hall they are rehearsing in? Control Theory: we seek to control the world around us. Keirsbilck Welke rol speelt het maatschappelijk kapitaal nog in het vennootschapsrecht van de 21ste eeuw?. Strongsville City Schools in partnership with the community, will ensure all students reach their fullest potential through challenging curriculum and activities, provided by a highly qualified, motivated staff, in a safe, supportive environment with up-to-date facilities and technology.

Virtual piano chords and scales, alternate chord positions, voicings and modes. I know a few, but I can't remember their proper names. Thanks, Justin. This qualification is aimed at learners aged 16 and above who work or want to work in the construction industry and specialise in the area of painting and decorating. Building on the techniques presented in Orchestration 1, which primarily covers the individual orchestral instruments and families, Orchestration 2 equips students with advanced strategies and approaches to writing for full orchestra.

A collection of free lessons that span classical guitar technique, theory, practice skills and musicianship. Volume 2 presents two sets of studies. Visit our Marketing Theories Page to see more of our marketing buzzword busting blogs.

Acapella Heaven Vol 2

There are references to various string and wind instruments, as well as several kinds of drums and cymbals, in the Vedas. About Seattle-based composer John Teske writes contemporary concert music for soloists, chamber groups, and chamber orchestra. This is a list of musical compositions that employ extended techniques to obtain unusual sounds or instrumental timbres.

The violins and violas play col legno, striking the wood of their bows on the strings Berlioz , — Watson further extended Pavlov's work and applied it to human beings [3]. It seems as though everyone knows that breathing technique is important to singing. Brouwer is continually in demand for new works, and recent commissions have come from major orchestras throughout the nation.

The Orchestra: A User's Manual is a free resource and will remain so. It would probably be easier to do something like this with technology like the one in Synful Orchestra which doesn't rely on samples but digital "formulas", or whatever it's called. See the testimonials. Ready for more Gershwin?

Encouraged by the success of the Rhapsody in Blue, Gershwin produced an even more ambitious crossover work the next year. Contemporary music strongly influenced by classical traditions is also entirely appropriate to discuss. With orchestral music though, you need to tread carefully. Volume 1 presents a critique and exploration of the way extended techniques with particular sound properties are used and notated in the contemporary repertoire for the classical six-string guitar. Located in the Central Valley of California, Stanislaus County is a growing community that offers affordable living, a thriving agriculture industry, and a unique balance of culture and adventure.

Muslim rulers and noblemen freely extended their patronage to music. With a storied past that has led to some of the most revered and sought after guitars in the industry today, every musician deserves to have their own classic guitar. It is believed that the change of narrative order and change of perceptive techniques aid recall because they reduce witness' use of prior knowledge, expectations or schema.

Subscribe to our email list. The remaining period of 14 sep but. Forbes is a global media company, focusing on business, investing, technology, entrepreneurship, leadership, and lifestyle. Not only does it help balance the number of works on the site, but it helps you get involved! My training does contribute something at those intuitive moments, but intuition itself brings something different. Were you aware of this?

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JH Is it? MS That subtle variation in harmonic content is used for evoking a meditative state in many religious cultures, Tibetan overtone chanting for instance. Music has many aspects, not just the magical strangeness: it has ability to resolve conflicts. We call Mozart magical. He has this marvellous quality of harmony which is healing in itself, bringing opposing things into a glorious dance which is a higher consciousness, altho his music is not necessarily about God or any text, just patterns of sound.

MT And of course a few years after him you have Novalis saying that all illness is ultimately a musical problem. I sense Klee as a shaman because of certain ways of constructing cosmic imagery, and I want to extend the idea that music is sound vibration, entering the temple of the ear, to say that art is colour vibration entering the body and soul via the eye. Not going backwards but of somehow transcending to a purer simpler vision of things.

In the middle comes Christianity with this wonderful figure of Jesus, but it is a historical figure and cannot escape something of that.

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  5. MT Have you looked into Taoism? MS Michael, do you follow a spiritual practice yourself? JH I think not having a defined religious perspective can make you open to more things and probably a better teacher in many ways. MT There are some crucial images that illuminate the distinction between the literal and the metaphorical which underlies this whole debate.

    Mircea Eliade believed that, the more a consciousness becomes spiritually awakened, the more it transcends its own sense of historicity. We need masks, as Nietzsche knew, but we need to know that we need more than one mask. His work dreams back time, the fearful dreaming back, of somehow remembering the horrors of existence under Greek mythology with all those terrifying gods coming to life; also, the fear of the primitive green man is very real, very alive, very strong.

    When he teaches music theatre, he makes everyone put on masks, and he wont tolerate the slightest triviality or slacking of attention. You become possessed by the mask. I admire his music so much, and yet I recognise myself going a different way. MS Surely, Jonathan, what you and Harry have in common is the release of self into something greater, from which you draw inspiration. MT Is it important for you that your music is experienced as a real time event with people there listening? JH I know a lot can be achieved by listening carefully to a record privately, but best of all is the sense of ceremony in the concert hall where people have made a special effort all to be present.

    Reprinted by permission of the artist. JH I have almost always tried to see electronic music as a live experience and one which is an extension of live players. MT If shamanism is about transcending the familiar plane of daily life in order to recharge that life with healing, inspiring energy, then there can surely be nothing wrong with exploiting the possibilities of technology today, provided it be done in a shamanic spirit: the first shamans were great technologists, after all.

    Perhaps Beethoven was a shamanic figure? He listens to late Beethoven a lot, loving the extraordinary range of focused emotion so evident in the work. That way you can create a universe within the limitations. If you take the perspective of a Beethoven or a Wagner, then the good those men have done is extraordinary, immeasurable; and presumably there are artists living today who will resonate on over the centuries in the same way. So art has this immense power over people.

    Even if they only listen to Beethoven in their bed sitting rooms when they get depressed. I feel more alienation here than I do abroad altho this country has other merits. A lot of good artists in the middle like Frans Widerberg get completely overlooked. So on the one hand you have the deconstructionist academic orthodoxy while on the other you have the entertainment or commercial world. The psychic dimensions of art get lost; Journalism and fashion combine to project an image of the arts as superficial as their own.

    Yet somewhere between all this the task of education is to lead out what is within us. Having worked on the journalistic side of the fence I have to say one of my great heroes is the writer and Fortune journalist James Agee, whose genius in something like Knoxville, Summer of or Let Us Now Praise Famous Men is to take some utterly, utterly banal circumstance and bring out the poetry, the universal, within it —not that the editorial power exercised over electronic news gathering really permits that today. People today are suffering from information overload.

    I discussed all this with Noam Chomsky. His case is that people are capable of making informed, intelligent decisions if the facts are set before them. If a significant minority of the public really did want ie, would pay for serious alternative programming some entrepreneur would step forward to provide it. Channel 4 TV would never have survived de-regulation in this country without ring-fencing.

    Look at the record of left wing papers in this country. MT This is the terrible irony of our culture. JH Are there many courses like yours at Brighton? MT No, only a handful. I teach alongside specialists in a variety of visual disciplines. The only other comparable course is one at your university run by Dr Brian Bates.

    Brian has an art history background but is very good at bridging disciplines, between that and psychology, the novel form and drama. He is interested in re-visioning drama. Is it really that powerful? Ironically the power of art shows up best in unpleasant cultures: the Nazis certainly recognised the power of art by banning it. Surely there has to be some continuing focus that expresses the need for vision?

    One of my fears in opening this area is that people will use it as a way of getting rid of all western culture. When things got a bit tetchy I took him out for a drink, and asked why he and his ilk always talked about Freud and why indeed many of them had never even read Jung. Men defined the agenda during the middle ages and have jealously clung onto a world view based on an image of the divided self—which they have projected into learning, religion, sexuality, and almost every arena of awareness.

    This projection of a divided self is nowhere more evident than within academe where a pattern of duality is reinforced by people being actively rewarded for the use of their intellects, but never for the use of their emotions. For me the exciting thing is the feminisation of culture, not in a political sense, but in terms of the inclusiveness of the female awareness.

    One word I like very much is tenderness. JH If we can. Do you think the language of analysis is doomed? Can we only reach higher ideals through art? MT My dream is that analysis and intuition can feed each other. I retain faith in analysis, but want it balanced by other qualities— by an intuitive longing for wholeness, above all. I certainly hope the present dominance of so-called deconstructive analysis is doomed!

    JH I hope so too. I wish that were true of all subjects. Rudolf Steiner recognised the educational power of creativity, and I think it would be an easy step for all education to take. To go back to feminisation, or that lovely word tenderness. I did a Christian opera called Passion and Resurrection. And I saw it in terms of masculine-feminine.

    The passion was dominated by men, Caiaphas, the soldiers and the disciples—St Peter was the pawn of all the dark masculine forces. It was obviously going to be dominated by the three Marys and the scene in the garden. I realised that all the instrumental music would have to change. Instead of the dark lower brass, I brought in the trumpet. The violins suddenly began to play important melodies. Everything began to be radiant.

    I found a new sort of music that was inversional, around a middle axis. In Jesus I tried to unite the two genders so that he was the only character who had both. He was complete, the healer. JH When you say resonant frequency, do you mean resonant frequency of the room? JH And this is different for each individual? MS Even for the same individual on different occasions. JH I definitely believe in chakras being stimulated by different sounds. I met a medium who said she could observe different chakras gaining energy according to the character of the music being performed.

    I wish I could see that sort of thing: it would give a great insight into music. MS In any art what matters is the latent energy, and that can be feminine just as much as masculine. Ideas come out of a world that existed before Dualism—or rather, not before or after, but in a world where dualism Is Irrelevant. A true artist is not one who chooses beauty in order to eliminate ugliness, he is not one who dwells in a world that distinguishes between the beautiful and the ugly, but rather he has entered the realm where strife between the two cannot exist. What is implied is an absence of storm, of conflict, of dis-ease.

    Worshipping the beautiful and hating the ugly are immature: in the work of one who seeks enlightenment there is no room for encroachment of duality. These are largely tied to explicit references in the lyrics, and operate across different domains: texture, timbre, production techniques, harmony and rhythm. Yes formed in around a nucleus of Jon Anderson vocals and Chris Squire bass. Howe actually joined after the first album Yes; released on Atlantic, Explaining, or even discussing that aspect of it, is beyond almost all but the most analogic prose. Fortunately, such a tone frequently leaves its mark on the music itself, and so my approach will take a different course.

    Although rock is not a music of primitives, the strategies remain, and both the latter are made use of by Yes, although not in any systematic way Whether they can be said to induce a spiritual ecstasy, rather than simply to evoke a sense of the spiritual, is an altogether different matter. My thanks to Teresa de Santos and Maxwell Steer for making this available. Wilfrid Mellers: Caliban reborn; Gollancz, , p3. Although the very presence of a bass textural layer is supremely normative in rock,5 Yes manage to override this norm sufficiently often for it to become noticeable.

    Yes in the '80s The work of Yes through the s was marked by a less esoteric style—more conventional rhythmic patterns, somewhat shorter lengths of song, more comprehensible formal structures and less oblique lyrics. It begins with an uncluttered full strumming of an acoustic guitar, which itself stands out within the work of a band known for their generally complex layering of instrumental strands. Yes: Close to the edge; Atlantic, Not only is listening to the material the only adequate answer, but notation will give a false impression in its unwarranted emphasis on pitch and rhythm.

    This album was a collaboration between Yes and Anderson, Bruford, Wakeman, Howe, in which Anderson and Squire supplied vocals to the product of both parties. For a short while thereafter, the entire conglomeration toured under the name Yes. Turner, op. These are barely separated in the stereo image, and grow out of the use of echo from the extremes of the stereo space.

    Here, however, the use of two different voices seems to dilute the effect, a dilution compounded by a switch from D Dorian in the verse to a D Mixolydian I— IV—VII sequence in the refrain. See, for example, Peter Russell: The awakening earth; Ark, This is clearly more a case of inspiration than translation, but the attribution does point to the spiritual exploration behind the lyrics. The effect of this is of a slight surging of the whole, whose subtle disorientation is particularly appropriate.

    The third set of techniques relate more clearly to matters of timbre although, again, production techniques cannot be ignored. Some uses are overt, and work in a very simple way. These timbres are particularly prevalent in styles such as hard rock and heavy metal, whose inheritance of the earthbound lyrics of the blues is a matter of convention. This surface is largely due to the production by noted pop producer Trevor Horn, briefly a previous member of Yes. The following explanations come from Margaret Stutley: Hinduism: the eternal law; Aquarian, These ideas come to coalescence before the entry of the voice beneath a clean guitar, emphasising the title.

    Other uses of specifically musical material can be more straightforward. Together with the extreme precision of the keyboards and the enunciation of the voice, its tempo seems remarkably focused, which perhaps can be seen as a metaphor for the focused meditation of the mystic. This is made even more clear by a comparison of what I have said so far with particularly two tracks on the early The Yes Album. Hitherto, all these significations have a more-or-less iconic quality That is not the case with the next two. The harmonic patterns hinge on the judicious use of first inversion harmonies, particularly in the sequence Ib— 22 Yes: Tormato; Atlantic, Yes: Tales from topographic oceans, op.

    This metaphor depends on a structural congruence, for the cycle of fifths of its nature conceals lack of harmonic motion beneath the illusion of harmonic movement.

    Music and Mysticism (Contemporary Music Review Series, Vol 2) | Maxwell Steer | download

    Moreover, because of the lack of familiarity which most listeners have for matters of musical structure in theory, this explicit congruence cannot be taken for granted, but must be read. The intention is not overtly ironic, and this appears to me to be something of a miscalculation. It opens with clapping sticks, leading into an ever-present drone which, symbolising the Didgeridoo, creates an appropriate atmosphere.

    Herein lies a problem, in that a song which appears to agitate on behalf of a voiceless people too easily shades into speaking for them, maintaining their silence. This brief survey does not support the notion that there is a coherent spiritual philosophy found in the music of Yes, at least as portrayed in that music, unless one allows a rather unspecific ecological pantheism with touches of universal siblinghood.

    To provide such support, however, has not been my aim, Rather, I have endeavoured to show that they make, and have made, use of a wide variety of specific techniques, 30 Yes: Fragile, op. Yes: Talk; Victory, Yes: Talk, op. Laya in Indian Music: Monody and the Shapes of Time Philip Rawson The essay begins by negating a common fallacy that heavy beat is the prime vehicle of feeling in music; then continues by describing the role of essentially linear laya as the prime vehicle of feeling in Indian music.

    This involves considering the nature of time itself, and how in performance laya works by generating a specific order of shapes through and of time, Finally it discusses how laya as time-process can evoke in the audience well defined inner states rasas , each based on setting into resonance dhvani traces of particular feeling-filled experiences, eventually combining the particular states into an ultimate rasa, which is a mode of mystical insight.

    Nearly 50 years of listening to live performances of Indian music in India itself as well as in Britain and conversing with musicians have convinced me that there are certain Indian performance traditions which could revitalise aspects of Western musicianship if they were assimilated into the concordat that exists between performer and composer. Traditional Indian music is in effect extempore composition, apparently monodic, executed by a lead performer accompanied by one or two supporting instruments.

    There is an aspect of the traditional performance of such music, known by the Sanskrit term laya Sanskrit is the language in which most classical Indian musicology is written which is vastly important not only for Indian music as it was once played, but also for most other Oriental musics. Some recent Indian performers have lost touch with laya, probably under the influence of post-Cubist Western ideas. Though not overtly recognized, and hence not named in the West, it is nevertheless an aspect of artistic practice that is no less important here, especially but not exclusively for recent Western composers who are interested in both monody and the spiritual purposes of music.

    In fact, once it is explicitly identified, it can turn out to be no less vital to the interpretation of polyphonic Western music. This is a fallacy; and laya, for reasons I shall be explaining, gives it the lie. As a time-linear phenomenon having nothing to do with heavy beat, laya is entirely about feeling expressed with fluent melody as well as rhythmic subtlety. Universality of Laya Genuine laya belongs primarily to music as extempore composition, and can not be transcribed into Western notation.

    But in fact even the most sophisticated Western notated architecture of polyphonic chords, keys, tone-row derivatives and resonances, does need in performance a sense of time-shaping for which laya is an excellent term. What it refers to is closest to the sustained phrasing of fine string playing, eg Pablo Casals and Josef Szigeti, to good plainsong or Bel Canto singers such as Caruso or Callas as distinct from the lineless syllable-pumping that now too often passes for singing , in that each of these may be able to generate timeshapes which are individually far longer than any tie-marking can notate, and can only be arrived at intuitively.

    All its expressive shapes follow each other in time, and rely for their effectiveness upon the memory of the audience retaining a sense of the coherence underlying shape-transitions and the modulations of feeling which they evoke. But none of these alone is adequate, for it is far, far more than any of these, as the Indian musician and musicologist S. Saxena has pointed out. The second refers to those freely moving passages, unpunctuated by marked beats, which introduce the note-pattern on which the following performance is to be based, and prepare the minds of performer and audience jointly for its subtle tone-structure and symbolisms.

    The first refers to the aspect of time in music which is rarely recognised explicitly, and which I shall be discussing later. Since they are addressed to the trained Indian ear capable both of hearing and distinguishing frequencies in terms of minute minimum intervals called srutis, and organised according to frequencies that can actually be heard, even though the series of intervals between the notes may be quite irregular, each note of the series is consonant with a frequency within the audible range of the true harmonics of the tonic.

    Philosophical Quarterly, New Series, vol. Laya in Hindustani Music. In performance, the notes are sounded predominantly in conjunct motion, emphasising linear continuity; though disjunct leaps are, of course, employed as well. Wind players of the double-reed shahnai or the flute modulate their pitches by blowing and fingering.

    Tala is usually amplified and vastly varied when the hand-beaten tablas join in, the pair of small tuned drums with eccentrically positioned discs of resin that allow the player to produce a variety of sonic qualities of beat. Individual talas may be far longer, more complex and asymmetrical than Western timesignatures, and not every unit underlying the counting out of the whole measure is sounded. The first is the one on which all the musicians in a group come together. Each tala thus incorporates an underlying timeshape composed of a series of measures of varying numbers of numerical count that define their lengths, and has nothing to do with regular emphatic beat.

    To remember and sustain the shape of a tala musicians may inwardly, not outwardly, repeat a set of words giving the varied count-length: eg. They resemble far more closely the complex scansion of Sanskritic poetry. Some of the larger-stringed lead instruments also have sets of shorter auxiliary strings strung diagonally beneath the finger-board over which the main playing strings are stopped. The skill of the supporting musicians is not merely to produce their individual sounds, but to hear and sustain this resonant metaphorical space as a rhythmically punctuated continuum.

    This is the life of laya, the be-all and end-all of performance, generating its own coherent and distinctive performance-time. A famous story makes the point beautifully. But when they reached heaven, the musician was horrified to see the ground littered with the smashed limbs, dismembered and bloody bodies of divinely beautiful people, male and female. With the visual arts this intuition may appear as static; but with the poetic, dramatic and musical arts it appears as a complex pattern of movement shaped as time.

    The good musician is one who can evoke a matching intuition and self-integration in an audience. The audience, however, does need to have ready within themselves both the resources to match and the capacity to respond by stilling their hopping minds, and turning inward to reach for that basic intuition. What this implies I shall discuss in a moment.

    It is 3 eg. Being more difficult, they are less frequently used, especially for Western audiences. All too often workaday performances provide rows of strictly tempered and timed note-steps and successions of chords, whose harmonics are out of kilter rather than flow-shapes through and of time. This musical loss is connected with a wider and more serious cultural-scientistic loss for us: our loss of a true sense of lived time as distinct from time measured as a succession of abstract units, discrete and individually timefree.

    To grasp laya properly we need to be prepared to take time far more seriously than people nowadays usually do. The other three are continuity, succession and change. Only the last two are generally recognized today: distinct unit-succession and integral change. Laya, however, emphatically involves the first two, duration and continuity, and so naturally includes the various kinds and functions of expectation towards the future as well as live memory.

    It naturally depends on creating, experiencing and grasping expressive shapes formulated not only in time, but through and of time-as-integral-continuum.

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    What these shapes are, and how they are formulated and gain expression in music, has rarely been properly discussed save in terms of arousing and relaxation of tensions, together with some sense of anticipation. Part of our problem lies in our usage of words. They are averse to naming not only concrete objects and facts save in generalities, but also especially definite actions and processes.

    All of this tends to obscure the basic fact that names and nouns are being used to refer to abstract categories as if they are single and static entities, counters which have no content of process through time. If you think about it you realise that the names and nouns one normally uses must imply time in many ways. For any phenomenon to exist at all means that it has to endure in some recognisable form for a period, however brief.

    Simply to be recognised and named, it must have presented itself as a continuity through some phase of duration. No phenomenon reveals any level and pattern of succession and change the second pair of the four modes of time mentioned above without also enduring continuously the first pair. This is what abstract categorical thought, and language, prefer to omit. But it is the nature of abstraction which at bottom means taking out from that it considers only one selected and tightly defined aspect of what it handles: that is what analysis means. But the reality it may claim to handle is far wider than what can be abstracted from it, which by being abstracted is turned into fixed units.

    Where laya is concerned the duration-continuity flow-aspects of that wider reality are precisely those which are essential to its realization and expression. Anticipation,5 in terms of scale-sequence modulated by tala intervals between notes and chords, certainly does come into such expression; also tensions induced by delay and acceleration.

    Therefore in reality the tree is born of the fruit, though it appears to be produced by the tree. This is an inner condition of mind and emotion induced in the audience which I mentioned earlier in the guise of a divine insight. But later theorists felt the need to recognise that harsha was not a simplex phenomenon, to be approached directly by the performing arts, but a complex reflecting and unifying a variety of emotional conditions. They therefore adopted the term rasa. So rasa was finally authenticated by Abhinavagupta ca. Rasas are not emotions themselves; each of our actual emotions in everyday life possesses our minds singly, and we tend to act upon it.

    However, all of them leave their traces, along with traces of their various causes and effects, in our deep, usually unconscious, memories. The whole nature of rasa is that, in experiencing it, we do not undergo and attempt to act upon an individual emotion behind it; by, say, 5 cf. Zuckerkandl, Sound and Symbol, Instead we sit still while performance-art presents forms and images analogous to the scalar and rhythmic shapes of the associated causes and effects of each emotion, so as to awaken and reconcile inner resonances called dhvani of that emotion among our mental experience-traces.

    The progress of an inspired musical performance gradually arouses by its performance-shapes in time the fields of resonance of each rasa in turn, as the audience follows and grasps its passage through shifting emotional regions. The performer, having evoked in succession traces in all the specific emotion-fields, and preserved them in the mind of the audience by introducing every now and then formal echoes of the shapes that evoked them, keeps them resonating together. This super-rasa therefore arises as a compound of all the lesser rasas awake at once: the profoundly erotic and infinitely sad, the jovial and tormented, the high-spirited and passionate, and so on, no one overwhelming the others.

    Specifically musical shapes realised in all four of the modes of time alone generate progressions through lesser rasas to super-rasa. This ties in with the Indian conception of the nature of monodic musical expression as rooted in the human voice singing extempore.

    Instruments sing; but they are capable of doing things, reaching ranges of shape and expression far beyond what actual human vocal organs can attain. They are super-voices, nevertheless appealing to the same human fund of feeling-resonances and unacted responses as the voice itself; hence the expressive instrumental performer may tap an even wider range of stronger and subtler gradations of aesthetic meaning than the singer. But the instrument, if its appeal is to be direct, always remains in some sense a voice, as in the playing of Charlie Parker and Art Tatum.

    Since the latter is a feeling-coherence perceived inwardly, which the heard sounds and their coherence can only symbolize, the mind of the audience needs to be trained both to be aware of and open to responding to these fields of feeling and coherence within themselves. The final state of Harsha-Rasa is that 6 Metaphysics book theta, chap 8. To the Western mind accustomed to dealing in static spatialized abstractions which consist of single aspects of groups of phenomena that exclude all other aspects of those phenomena than that abstracted, it may seem that since events in actual passing time never repeat exactly, they can not be said to show externally any other than a statistical formal pattern.

    In our present context the fluid time-entities which Indian music presents may legitimately be called forms. As shapes of sound signifying forms in and of time, the forms of individual phrases and passages may have no need to be symmetrical, and beginnings may be differently shaped from ends. We should have no difficulty in accepting that what they signify are recognisable forms, and so share the genuinely divine creative status of form as traditionally accepted. This may be both close and more distant, linking the fluid sounds with our memory traces of fluid human experience, somatic as well as vocal.

    They include expression in our communications with other people through active body-language of posturing and gesturing as well as voice-inflection. All of these are in reality shaped in and through time, never merely abstract in the static sense. These get structured into our memory, along with their accompanying stimulus-shapes, feeling-responses and emotional consequences. A simple example in words can illustrate the basic material that the monodic line enhances, and how particular inflections of expressive sound and stress can convey delicate shades of trans-verbal feeling, and hence aesthetic meaning.

    Singers, of course, regularly produce much subtler inflections of the same simple phrase. Our minds thus contain, usually without our realising it, along with vocal traces, a fund of unconscious memory-traces and structures replete with many kinds of movement and process-imagery imbued with various feelings. The elements may originate in diverse regions of experience and knowledge which have no connection in the purely objective world. Laya, of course, goes far beyond enacting straightforward imitations of common time-based soundphenomena of the everyday world; though it is formally developed from a continuous series of length and stress forms based on them, usually divorced from words.

    As formulated aesthetic utterance, all musics involve the reconciliation into coherence of contrasting thematic material along with its fields of reference. Because in monodic music such forms have to appear lined out through performance-time, all the variations, repetitions and homologues essential to resolutions into higher time-formal coherences have to be clearly differentiated and connected within the time-flow of the music. This is why it needs to involve that wide range of individual note-length, highly varied rubato, stresses, graces, glissando and minute shifts in pitch between notes and over clusters of intervals.

    The resolutions and laddered structure of sequential time-forms executed through the performance-time necessarily lift all the material unified by the formal ana logues out of and above common passing time, into another region. Achieving this generates the sense of transcendent time so familiar to musical people in India. It is felt to be a reflection of the True Self witnessing its Creative identity gathered within the temporal forms of Being. A Mookerjee Thames and Hudson, London. Exhibition and catalogue planned, designed and curated. Catalogue of exhibition designed and installed by Rawson.

    Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh Festival. Published in The Netherlands by Reprints available directly from the publisher Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH Photocopying permitted by license only Printed in India Taste, Snobbery and Spiritual Style in Music Joscelyn Godwin The writer uses his own autobiography as a professional musician in order to illustrate how musical tastes and prejudices are formed and discarded. He describes his life as a choirboy, a composer, an adherent and a rejecter of the avant-garde, and a seeker after the spiritual aspects of music.

    He questions the Platonic doctrine that music has an effect on morality, admits his own lack of authentic inspiration, and suspects that it is generally shared by modern composers. But the classics of the Western tradition continue to serve him as a source of quasi-religious wisdom. KEYWORDS Autobiography, Avant-garde, Creative process, Meditation, Plato, Spirituality Since I have compiled, translated, and written so many pages about the speculative and spiritual aspects of music, people sometimes ask me about my views on the practical aspects as well, and especially on the connections between the three.

    They want to know, for instance, whether I regard any particular type of music as superior, when judged from the principles of the Pythagorean tradition? Is there a spiritual hierarchy in music? As I brood on these questions, I feel a profound scepticism about any general claims or dogmatic statements. Taking my own case as a specimen, I invite the reader to make an analogous review.

    However different his or her history may be, the exercise of selfknowledge is bound to be revealing and rewarding. My first musical life was as a choirboy at Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, and the Anglican choral tradition my first repertory. As I recall it to memory, my immediate instinct is to classify it. I want to put at the top the Bach motets and Renaissance masses, and far beneath them those early twentieth-century anthems, constructed, as I now know, from purloined hunks of Mendelssohn and Brahms.

    Those specimens of Edwardian sublimity gave me the peak experiences of my childhood, and they would still uncork a flood of emotion if I were to wallow in them again. What lessons do I draw from this?