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Direct human-to-human transmission has not been documented.

Plague | Public Health Ontario

The severity of tularemia varies greatly. Some cases are mild and self-limiting; others may have serious complications, and a small percentage about 2 percent may become life-threatening. Cat-scratch disease also commonly known as cat-scratch fever is a self- limiting infectious disease characterized by swelling and pain in the lymph nodes regional lymphadenitis.

The disease is caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae and, in most cases, occurs as a result of a scratch, bite, or lick from a cat or kitten. Symptoms may not appear for several days after exposure and may last for several weeks. There are numerous other infections that cause similar symptoms to plague including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, lymphatic filariasis, brucellosis, dengue virus disease, and streptococcal lymphadenitis. For more information on this disorder, choose the specific disorder name as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.

The diagnosis of plague may be confirmed by specialized laboratory tests in addition to characteristic clinical findings. Yersinia pestis can be identified in blood samples, tissue taken from enlarged lymph nodes buboes and sputum.


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  3. Plague and Other Yersinia Infections - Infectious Diseases - MSD Manual Professional Edition.

Treatment The treatment of plague must begin as soon as possible to avoid serious life-threatening complications. Streptomycin, doxycycline and other tetracyclines , and fluoroquinolones levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin are approved by the U. Gentamicin has also been used successfully to treat plague; chloramphenicol may be indicated in rare cases of plague meningitis. When pneumonia has developed, droplet precautions should be taken by health care providers to prevent transmission.

There is no commercially available vaccine against plague in the United States. Individuals living in plague endemic areas should take preventive measures such as avoiding contact with rodents and fleas. Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at www. All studies receiving U. Government funding, and some supported by private industry, are posted on this government web site.

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Tollfree: TTY: Email: prpl cc. For information about clinical trials sponsored by private sources, contact: www. Yersinia species Including Plague. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia: Elsevier; Berkow R. The Merck Manual-Home Edition.

Infectious Diseases A-Z: Plague outbreak in Madagascar

Epidemiology of Human Plague in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Human Plague — United States, Pabilonia K. Am J Trop Med Hyg ; Ascher M. Eitzen E. Chills High fever Extreme exhaustion Pain Breathing constriction Muscle cramps Vomiting of blood Gangrene of the toes, fingers, lips, and nose Opening of swollen buboes lymph nodes in armpit or groin Seizures.

While uncommon, it is considered a more serious form of plague, causing the rapid development of pneumonia, chest pains, and bloody or watery sputum, If left untreated, pneumonic plague can cause respiratory failure and death, usually within 36 hours. It is the rarest form of the disease and arguably the most aggressive. Symptoms are similar to that of the bubonic plague but can include characteristic bleeding beneath the skin. Death is almost inevitable if treatment is not delivered within 24 hours.

Never handle sick or dead animals. If you must, wear heavy gloves. Keep your pets indoors or provide them flea collars. Eliminate fleas from your home. A Word From Verywell. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Sign Up. What are your concerns? Article Sources. New York Times. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Continue Reading.

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What Are the Neglected Tropical Diseases? Yersinia species including plague. Updated by: Jatin M. Editorial team.

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Plague is a severe bacterial infection that may cause death. The three most common forms of plague are: Bubonic plague, an infection of the lymph nodes Pneumonic plague, an infection of the lungs Septicemic plague, an infection of the blood The time between being infected and developing symptoms is typically 2 to 8 days.

Symptoms include: Fever and chills General ill feeling malaise Headache Muscle pain Seizures Smooth, painful lymph gland swelling called a bubo that is commonly found in the groin, but may occur in the armpits or neck, most often at the site of the infection bite or scratch ; pain may start before the swelling appears Pneumonic plague symptoms appear suddenly, typically 1 to 4 days after exposure. They include: Severe cough Difficulty breathing and pain in the chest when breathing deeply Fever and chills Headache Frothy, bloody sputum Septicemic plague may cause death even before severe symptoms occur.

Symptoms can include: Abdominal pain Bleeding due to blood clotting problems Diarrhea Fever Nausea, vomiting. Exams and Tests. The health care provider will perform a physical examination and ask about your symptoms. Tests that may be done include: Blood culture Culture of lymph node aspirate fluid taken from an affected lymph node or bubo Sputum culture. Outlook Prognosis. When to Contact a Medical Professional. Alternative Names. Bubonic plague; Pneumonic plague; Septicemic plague.

Flea Flea bite - close-up Antibodies Bacteria. Plague Read more.