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Help finding your career Helping you find your dream career Search for careers and jobs. In a thought-provoking and informative article, McCrindle defines 'generation y' - those born between and - by their values, influences and motivations. It is this generation which now populates schools. McCrindle asserts that teachers and school leaders need to understand how to communicate with generation 'y' if they are to be effective in the education of these students.
Noting the increase in the proportion of school principals who do not serve out the length of their contracts at schools, Millikan examines the relationship between school heads and school boards so as to bring greater clarity to the specific roles of both. His article clearly delineates the roles of members of the school board and that of the principal by describing the scope of the roles and attaching specific duties to each of them.
For example, he sees school boards as performing the overall role of school governance which involves overseeing the employment and appraisal of the principal; the fiscal situation of the school; and the overview of the schools mission. Principals, on the other hand, should be left to manage the learning environment; manage their staff and students; ensure the professional development of staff; and implement the board's policies.
This article provides a step-by-step approach to planning and managing the 'change process' in schools. Demonstrating, by means of a case study, the connection between the school's mission and articulated vision, and the 'faculty plan', it shows school principals how to give effect and practical meaning to those initial lofty ideals. It claims that the Curriculum Evaluation of demonstrated that there was still a lot of confusion about schools' responsibilities in this area.
The SSTUWA has advanced a six-point plan to address the situation which includes resourcing and support to make sense of the levels across the WA system, professional development to assist teachers develop assessment strategies which conform to the Curriculum Framework's requirements, and a review of curriculum policy.
Although this article is addressed to teachers in the United States, much of it will be relevant to teachers outside of that country. The authors situate Global Education within its philosophical and pedagogical contexts, and provide practical advice to help teachers integrate it with the perspectives and voices of women from around the world. One way in which this can be achieved is to recognise the lack of understanding of other cultures among students, and to remedy this by confronting stereotypes.
Other approaches suggested by the authors are: introducing multiple perspectives using primary documents, teaching about the power dimensions of prejudices and providing students with opportunities for cross-cultural experiential learning. Working from the premise that students' beliefs about scientific inquiry influence their approaches to scientific learning, this United States study examined the beliefs held by students about the discipline as well as their learning strategies. It found that there was, while complicated, a correlation between students' conception of scientific knowledge eg tentative, contested or factual and their learning strategies eg understanding or memorising; autonomous or dependent , and that this had profound implications for science pedagogy.
In this paper, Cotter brings an overarching philosophical presence to the kinds of tensions with which school communities find themselves grappling. Noting that schools have arrived at the juncture of two models of society, that is, the individual-oriented, contractual and market-driven model and the community or communitarian model, Cotter makes the argument for the legitimacy and relevance of the latter, with its values of unconditional generosity, self-sacrifice and service.
He observes that schools, while increasingly besieged by the 'external model' of society based on contractual relations, are still based on 'covenants', the kinds of unconditional relationships found in families. It is in these kinds of communities, with their emphasis on generosity and service, that skills such as emotional intelligence and social capital, valued by organisations with a more market vision of the world, are fostered. Cotter's paper is both thought provoking and inspirational, as it contains a synthesis of the relevant literature, and a sprinkling of 'real-life' scenarios and examples.
But, even more than this, it offers school leaders a theoretical perspective on the organisational tensions operating within schools, gives them a framework within which to articulate that conflict and provides a reasoned argument for the intrinsic values at the heart of schools. Bhindi recognises the social, economic and political environment in which schools have to operate, and notes that now, more than ever, is the time for creative leadership in schools.
Creative leadership, it is asserted, is not the preserve of 'the chosen few', but rather a dormant ability which has its roots in 'passion, commitment and energy', and which needs 'courage, imagination and exploration' for its release. In the interview, Holden recounts his motivations for entering the teaching profession, and outlines his educational philosophy, educational priorities, management style and indicators of success.
David Loader attempts to shift the terrain of the public versus private school debate by arguing that the real argument is about underlying values and not the means by which schools are funded. Schools can be deemed 'public', not by the way they are funded, but by whether they subscribe to a set of values which are perceived to be 'public values'. To arrive at this set of values Loader uses Brian Caldwell's Scenarios for Leadership and the Public Good in Education in which the principles of choice, equity, access, efficiency, economic growth and harmony are outlined as elements of the public good.
This shift towards values, it is argued, allows for a more accurate evaluation of the success of schools and for a more meaningful focus on ends instead of means. In this article she reports on how the efforts of teaching staff over a three-year period to 'describe the best classroom' have lead to a new and innovative building, a new philosophy on classroom practice - encapsulated in the document 'The Landscape for Learning' - and linked subjects which facilitate interdisciplinary learning.
She concludes, therefore, that some of the ingredients which go into creating a quality learning environment are: an educational philosophy that is owned by teachers and which values students' experiences; and a flexible building that allows for experimentation and does not inhibit choice. Acknowledging the plethora of 'values' and other moral guidance education programs now available to school students in the United States, Weissbourd seeks to recognise the role of teachers in students' moral development and argues the case for helping teachers to be more effective in this role.
Far from introducing yet another program, Weissbourd identifies disillusionment and depression as reasons for teachers not fulfilling this role. He asserts that teachers often become disillusioned about their capacity to make a difference in students' lives, and that this can often lead to a sense of hopelessness and 'passivity'. Helping teachers to better manage students' behavioural problems, assisting them in recognising signs of depression in themselves, instituting a mentoring strategy and allowing teachers time to reflect on their work are just some of the ways in which they become more enthusiastic and more effective as teachers and, as a consequence, better at shaping the moral development of those who often admire them most - their students.
The taskforce will report to the Commonwealth Minister for Education, Science and Training on the issues of teacher training and professional standards for the profession. The AEU's position is that standards should only apply to those entering the profession and should be generic; that any standards framework should be 'owned' by the teaching profession; that teaching standards should not be linked to student outcomes, which are affected by a range of variables not just teacher quality; and that standards should not be linked to performance management. His article provides an insight into one of the key initiatives in British education - the Blair Government's Investment for Reform program.
Hart sees this program, a shift away from centralisation and towards self-managing schools, as an opportunity for 'transformational, pioneering and ambitious leaders' to re-model their schools. He makes the plea that governments should unshackle schools and not drown them in bureaucratic red tape or have them balancing too may competing priorities. He cautions, however, that Heads should not lose sight of the 'vital role of schools' in communities.
Among other things this role includes the development of the knowledge and skills of young people, maintaining schools as 'oases of calm' in young people's lives and social inclusion in an increasingly competitive environment. Using the metaphor of travel, Greene asks school principals and leaders to consider why they have not successfully implemented the reforms they initially intended to achieve.
By example, Green lists a series of measures implemented in schools which are anachronistic and of no real benefit to students. Some of these include: the concept of work experience for Year 10 students in an age of apprenticeships and adolescent part-time work; age cohort structuring of classes when it is widely recognised that students do not achieve the same outcomes at the same time; and using form groups as a kind of pastoral care.
He encourages principals to break with the past, as it is the 'excess baggage' of the old curriculum which often inhibits the achievements of the new. St Bedes Catholic College in Victoria is fortunate enough to have a full-time attendance officer at the school. Brother Brendan Crowe, a teacher of 27 years experience, implemented a computerised attendance register which is cross-referenced with parents' absentee notifications by 9.
While intended as a deterrent, it allows the school to stop the habit of truancy in its tracks, and to recognise cries for help of which truancy is often a manifestation. Students are initially counselled by Brother Brendan, and those considered to be at risk are referred to the school counsellor. After noticing a drop-off in boys' academic achievement and engagement at Year 3, the school started to address the situation with activities directed towards 'real world' outcomes such as their 'Making it real to make it work' program.
Coincidence would have it that a teaching fellow from the United State was due to be hosted by the school. Noticing the similarities in what the school was trying to achieve and the Tribes initiative she was trained in, the teacher recommended it to the school. The Tribes initiative involves small group work which sees students assigned to a group for a year.
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The groups are of mixed abilities so that students are compelled to recognise individual attributes. This allows the five principles of the Tribes Agreement to come into play, which include attentive listening, appreciation, a right to pass not to participate in some activities , mutual respect and personal best. Agterhuis has noticed the changes in both the communication skills and self-esteem of the boys, as well as an appropriation of the principles of Tribes in their vocabulary and attitudes.
The rural community of Goondiwindi in south-west Queensland had a convergence of problems: the retention rate at the local high school was falling, and local rural industries could not find enough high school graduates to employ. Goodiwindi High School and local business decided to co-ordinate to solve their problems simultaneously. Together, the two programs have increased the school retention rate from Dixon implores teachers to 'get competent' with computers so that they can unleash the true learning potential of this, not so new, technology. Recognising that it has taken 35 years for computers to enter the classroom, and lamenting the fact that the vast majority of students still do not have school-based access to computers, he points out that teachers' attitudes and fears about their roles should not be an added obstacle to creating an exciting learning environment with computers - 'the instrument of ideas'.
Using the area of 'special education' as a case study for a wider theoretical statement, the author of this paper promotes a 'dilemmatic' approach to advancing education debates. He argues that, as can be seen in the conflict over the appropriate models and nomenclature in the area of special education, debates in education are often value laden and present options which, regardless of the paths taken, have negative outcomes.
The social model of inclusion versus the individual needs model in special education is seen as representative of this kind of 'dilemmatic' situation. The way forward is to recognise the conflicting 'multiple values' the ambiguity and contradictions and to produce creative solutions which attempt to fulfill some values while not jeopardising the attainment of others. In the above example, this would be recognising that the values of social inclusion should not override the need for an accommodation and recognition of individual needs and difference.
With the increased pressure for schools to adopt a market approach to their work processes and resourcing has come many opportunities, but also stresses. This paper, primarily based on the recent British school reforms, surveyed the academic literature and data to weigh its hypotheses on the psychological wellbeing of school principals in the new era of 'marketisation of schools'. Its findings call for more quantitative research to be conducted on the subject but, more importantly, the paper gives a clear analytical breakdown of the kinds of factors which lead to job satisfaction and self-renewal, as well as those in some cases the same factors leading to stress and burnout.
This thoughtful and well-researched paper is a summary of an address given at the Australian Women Speak conference. Harris uses the core themes identified by the Commonwealth Government's Office for the Status of Women - economic self-support and security, optimal status and position, elimination of violence and maintenance of good health - as the organising principles for her description and explanation of the circumstances of young Australian women today. She notes that young Australian women are increasingly finding themselves in a paradoxical situation - on the one hand with more opportunities than their peers a generation before, yet facing increased social and economic pressures on the other.
Many aspire to motherhood before thirty-five and economic independence.
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But, while increasing numbers of young women have found their way to tertiary education, they still do not do as well with their credentials as young males, and those who do not go on to further study are less likely to find themselves in full-time work. The study on which this paper is based drew on students, their teachers and parents, from 22 Brisbane schools. Through a series of surveys, it found that there was an adverse correlation between socio-economic status and 'temperamental aggression' - a category of aggression which excludes bullying.
The authors contended that aggression was more likely to be exhibited in students who had inflated perceptions of their academic competencies, and who thus demonstrated a lack of maturation, a developmental trait usually associated with adolescents from disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds. Connell takes a nostalgic, yet insightful, journey back to the time and issues which inspired Making the Difference Connell et al, , the ground-breaking publication on educational equity in Australia.
A by-product of this journey is a thought provoking survey of the last 20 years of the politics of Australian education. Mindful of what he terms the 'neoliberal' or economic rationalist dominance of the education debate, he refocuses attention to issues of class and gender inequality which, he contends, far from being solved, have become entrenched in Australian education and educational outcomes. Michael Apple reflects on the effects September 11 had on the his teaching personally, and on the implications for a critical pedagogy generally.
He draws attention to what he sees as an 'authoritarian populism' which has emerged in the United States in the wake of September 11, and ponders the implications of this for a hidden curriculum of uncritical patriotism. The package is aimed at combating truancy by obliging schools to create 'Attendance Improvement Plans' to encourage students to maintain their school attendance.
Some schools have already introduced innovative initiatives which have met with some success. Professor Slee explains the aims of the Education Queensland reform agenda, as contained in Queensland State Education , against the background of its over-arching aim - 'redesigning schooling'. Some of the measures include creating a curriculum that is both relevant and engaging, examining and promoting good pedagogy and fostering a culture of inclusivity in educational practices and school environments.
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The Third International Mathematics and Science Study - Repeat, under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, demonstrated that Australian Year 8 and 9 students' mathematics and science competencies were among the best internationally. The assessment, conducted in Australia by the Australian Council for Education Research ACER , had Australian students performing above the average in both science and mathematics, with 19 per cent of Australian students making up the top 10 per cent in science, and 12 per cent in the top 10 per cent in mathematics.
While based on American experience, this article is a useful reminder to Australian curriculum leaders of the need to have policies and procedures in place to deal with challenges to books held in school libraries. It points out that the absence of such policies and procedures may lead to 'knee-jerk reactions' which neither consider students' educational requirements or the appropriateness of the resource.
A number of teachers who have recently graduated in southern states are now teaching in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory. They face problems such as high rates of student absenteeism, separation from their families, and the isolation of the communities. Today's educational leader must add the roles of manager, marketer and entrepreneur to their more traditional duties, and they must be able to train others to lead.
Their role is also likely to involve collaboration with other senior staff who specialise in one or more aspects of school leadership. Recruitment to school leadership positions can therefore be based on potential rather than achievements, with new leaders trained and helped by more experienced peers. A range of school leaders offer opinions. The authors report on the results of a random survey sent to primary schools in New South Wales in , designed to identify the most important factors that made novice teachers confident to teach science and technology.
The factors that new teachers rated most highly included: units on how to teach science and technology in their tertiary training; teaching practice and observation sessions during block practicums at schools; and the experience of teaching science and technology in their first year out. The teachers rated their own prior education in science and technology content as a minor factor. Respondents indicated the need for more help from colleagues during first year of teaching.
The results are seen to apply to novice secondary science teachers, too.
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Earlier research work is provided as context. Schools are familiar architectural designs to many people, and, perhaps, they should not be. Even though educational practices and student learning needs have changed many times over in the last fifty years, many school buildings are still designed according to the standard model - two rows of classrooms separated by a corridor. This article points out that even though financial constraints are overriding considerations in school design, many educators are also unaware of the impact of building design on learning.
It provides a few North American examples of how better building design has successfully transformed teacher and student learning, and urges educators to become more aware of their use of space and its impact on teaching. Mathematics in Indigenous Contexts K-6 is a project which aims to develop culturally appropriate teaching units to assist Indigenous students to achieve numeracy outcomes in New South Wales. This article is a brief description of the work of two primary schools - Crawford Public School and Walhallow Public School - in involving the local community and parents in the development of the mathematics units.
The Office of the Board of Studies has collated the units developed by the schools, and will host them on an interactive website to help other schools emulate the work of the Crawford and Walhallow Public Schools in their endeavours to improve the numeracy outcomes for Indigenous students. The March edition of the Board Bulletin reported on a project being undertaken to identify issues and areas of support for primary teachers in delivering the K-6 syllabuses. The project had surveyed 40 primary schools and received responses. These responses were categorised into five areas: use of existing syllabuses; comments on outcomes; comments on Key Learning Areas; comments on assessment; and other issues and recommendations.
A second progress report appeared in the May edition of the Board Bulletin. This edition of AEU News contains a feature story on teaching and schools in two rural communities in western Victoria - Ararat and Stawell. Teachers and principals of both primary and secondary schools share their stories of life and teaching in rural communities including issues such as resourcing, professional development, fundraising, school issues and workplace concerns.
In New South Wales, nine new public schools are to be built and maintained by a private consortium in a public-private partnership similar to that in operation in Britain. Questioning the motivations of both the government and the private sector, Fiona Sexton suggests that this may be yet another step towards privatising education services and that public-private partnerships have not been as successful overseas as first imagined. The longitudinal study, Achievement in Literacy and Numeracy by Australian Fourteen-year-olds, , managed by the Department of Education Science and Training and the Australian Council of Educational Research, has shown that the effect of socio-economic status on student learning over that period has become greater.
While the gap between individual students has lessened, schools in which there is a high concentration of students whose parents occupy professional or managerial positions did better overall on comprehension and numeracy tests. The same study found that students from non-English speaking backgrounds had closed the gap in educational attainment measurements and that there was not a marked difference in educational achievement between metropolitan and non-metropolitan schools. The widening gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous achievement, however, was still evident.
Information literacy - the ability to recognise when information is needed and how to access, evaluate and apply it - is becoming more widely recognised in school curricula, higher education and adult learning. The current debate over literacy and reading has been oversimplified into a choice between the phonics and whole of language approaches. Both methods are necessary. However, while the whole of language approach is well established in schools, only token recognition is given to phonics.
Phonics is more than the alphabet and letter sounds, it is 'a structured and sequential program that gives children a set of rules they can use to read almost every word they encounter'. Phonics helps to overcome the vocabulary deficit for disadvantaged children, by giving them ways to identify words. Curriculum integration is often supported as a means to advance students' critical thinking, develop their 'big picture' insights into real world issues, and point out connections between different forms of knowledge.
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It is also said to encourage constructivist learning and to be seen as relevant by students. These claims have been challenged for lack of supportive evidence from large scale studies. However, a case study of a year-long Year 4 'Enviro' program at the primary school of Geelong College, Victoria, demonstrates that Environmental Education EE offers a valuable way to integrate science with other disciplinary content.
Teachers stimulate students' independent learning about the environment. Projects within the program stimulate the development of deep knowledge in which mathematical and scientific learning is integrated - for example, a project to catch and breed endangered fish requires students to learn about what the fish need and to calculate the amount of water held in fish tanks.
This integrated curriculum has real world relevance, and also allows for the needs of low and high ability learners. Core content for mathematics continues to be taught separately. Janice Padula examines the way children's fiction can be used by enterprising mathematics teachers to create 'contextualised mathematical learning'. Through fiction, children are able to engage with the context of mathematical thinking, and see its relevance in very day situations.
Mathematical language, symbols and concepts can be learned in fun and exciting ways through mathematical fiction. Padula estimates that there are at least ten different kinds of mathematical fiction, which can introduce students to arithmetic, relational terms, sequencing, logic and patterns, to name a few mathematical concepts. She discusses several works of mathematical fiction and their relevance to identified mathematical concepts in the article.
One of the key aims of the project was to place pedagogy back on the Vocational Education and Training agenda. An important outcome of this initiative will be a body of research on pedagogical theories, which will be available online, so that teachers can access research pertaining to their area of teaching and the needs of their students. The new globalisation 'seeks to attain by force what the older form sought through economic, political and cultural hegemony'.
It takes two competing forms: 'religious fundamentalism' is clashing with the armed might of 'imperial fundamentalism', based around military interventions overseas by the world's strongest nation states. Citizenship education in schools, resting on outdated assumptions of social certainty and security, must be adapted to present world conditions. Current efforts to 'teach across borders', through peace, environmental or citizenship education, should inform students about other national traditions as well as their own, and apply concepts such as justice and tolerance to global contexts.
Current efforts to 'teach beyond disciplines' recognise that subjects in the school curriculum rarely incorporate recent advances in disciplinary scholarship, and would not be endorsed by academic experts. These efforts can be extended so that the role of nations in a global society is taught through an issues-based curriculum model that draws on disciplines including History, Economics, Cultural Studies and Political Science. Efforts to 'teach for hope', that currently address problems such as youth disengagement, could be enriched by the concept of 'critical patriotism', emerging in Hong Kong and other parts of Asia.
Citizenship education needs to teach not only about civic institutions such as parliament, but also civil involvement, shown for example in the ability of peace protestors to mobilise millions globally against the Iraq war. Students need to experience civil participation at school, eg through school councils, and to know that civil and civic issues are usually problematic and contested.
Liberal democracy needs to be taught in the context of rival value systems, which include the two 'fundamentalisms'. Cynthia Crockett demonstrates how science teachers can use classroom discussions and tests to discover many of the misconsceptions and beliefs students have about science. She asserts that it is easy for students to conceal their misconceptions about science and scientific events in conventional assessment methods, which are testing for knowledge and process instead of depth of understanding.
If students' misonceptions and misunderstanding are not revealed, these can begin to affect the structure of their knowledge and understanding. Uncovering these misconceptions can be done in classroom conversations, perhaps using the carousel method, and in tests which deliberately set out to see if students can differentiate between common misconceptions and meaningful, scientific understanding.
Distributive leadership is based on usurping the single-leader model, so that leadership is more devolved within an organisation. In schools, this takes the form of teacher leadership, in which teachers take responsibility for performing leadership roles. In this review of the literature on teacher leadership, the authors define the concept, point to its many benefits - including better morale, improved retention rates and the establisment of a professional community - and suggest how it can be achieved in schools, along with identifying the many obstacles to its achievement.
Calls have been made to apply restrictive ratings to books pitched at teenagers, on the grounds that much of this literature contains references to gratuitous violence, rape, or sex, or to topics such as abortion. These calls are misguided. If the books they seek to read are censored teenagers would continue to have easy access to portrayals of extreme violence through computer games and the Internet.
Many reading items once considered offensive or subversive, including comics, have come to be seen as promoting literacy. In the light of the Commonwealth Government's emphasis on values education, Paul Browning examines what schools are already doing to instill values in young people. He notes that values education is yet another social responsibility which has been passed onto schools, as the influence of other social institutions and networks is eroded.
Browning also sees a trend with people who may no longer practise a religion, nevertheless wanting their children to be exposed to religious values, and choosing parochial schools for this purpose. Schools impart values through their curriculum, pedagogy, structures and their expectations of students.
They also do this through committing to social services, and encouraging students to look beyond the school grounds in their community activities. Activities such as fundraising, community service and social justice projects are cited as examples. But, more important, is the relationship between schools and parents. For students to have a consistent approach to values education, a partnership with parents needs to be valued and employed. Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. This monograph is intended for educational psychologists, scholars, instructors, and students.
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