Cable specialty channels , starting with channels oriented to show movies and large sporting or performance events, diversified further, and " narrowcasting " became common.
Introduction to CATV
By the late s, cable-only signals outnumbered broadcast signals on cable systems, some of which by this time had expanded beyond 35 channels. By the mids in Canada, cable operators were allowed by the regulators to enter into distribution contracts with cable networks on their own. By the s, tiers became common, with customers able to subscribe to different tiers to obtain different selections of additional channels above the basic selection.
By subscribing to additional tiers, customers could get specialty channels, movie channels, and foreign channels. Large cable companies used addressable descramblers to limit access to premium channels for customers not subscribing to higher tiers, however the above magazines often published workarounds for that technology as well.
During the s, the pressure to accommodate the growing array of offerings resulted in digital transmission that made more efficient use of the VHF signal capacity; fibre optics was common to carry signals into areas near the home, where coax could carry higher frequencies over the short remaining distance. Although for a time in the s and s, television receivers and VCRs were equipped to receive the mid-band and super-band channels.
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Due to the fact that the descrambling circuitry was for a time present in these tuners, depriving the cable operator of much of their revenue, such cable-ready tuners are rarely used now — requiring a return to the set-top boxes used from the s onward. The conversion to digital broadcasting has put all signals — broadcast and cable — into digital form, rendering analog cable television service mostly obsolete, functional in an ever-dwindling supply of select markets.
Analog television sets are still [ when? Cable television has had little success in Africa , as it is not cost-effective to lay cables in sparsely populated areas. So-called "wireless cable" or microwave -based systems are used instead. Coaxial cables are capable of bi-directional carriage of signals as well as the transmission of large amounts of data.
Cable television signals use only a portion of the bandwidth available over coaxial lines. This leaves plenty of space available for other digital services such as cable internet , cable telephony and wireless services, using both unlicensed and licensed spectrum. Broadband internet access is achieved over coaxial cable by using cable modems to convert the network data into a type of digital signal that can be transferred over coaxial cable. One problem with some cable systems is the older amplifiers placed along the cable routes are unidirectional thus in order to allow for uploading of data the customer would need to use an analog telephone modem to provide for the upstream connection.
This limited the upstream speed to Many large cable systems have upgraded or are upgrading their equipment to allow for bi-directional signals, thus allowing for greater upload speed and always-on convenience, though these upgrades are expensive.
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In North America , Australia and Europe , many cable operators have already introduced cable telephone service, which operates just like existing fixed line operators. This service involves installing a special telephone interface at the customer's premises that converts the analog signals from the customer's in-home wiring into a digital signal, which is then sent on the local loop replacing the analog last mile , or plain old telephone service POTS to the company's switching center, where it is connected to the public switched telephone network PSTN.
One of the standards available for digital cable telephony, PacketCable , seems to be the most promising and able to work with the quality of service QOS demands of traditional analog plain old telephone service POTS service. The biggest advantage to digital cable telephone service is similar to the advantage of digital cable, namely that data can be compressed, resulting in much less bandwidth used than a dedicated analog circuit-switched service. Other advantages include better voice quality and integration to a Voice over Internet Protocol VoIP network providing cheap or unlimited nationwide and international calling.
In many cases, digital cable telephone service is separate from cable modem service being offered by many cable companies and does not rely on Internet Protocol IP traffic or the Internet. Traditional cable television providers and traditional telecommunication companies increasingly compete in providing voice, video and data services to residences.
The combination of television, telephone and Internet access is commonly called " triple play ", regardless of whether CATV or telcos offer it.
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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In , people living in remote valleys in Pennsylvania solved their reception problems by putting antennas on hills and running cables to their houses. These days, the same technology once used by remote hamlets and select cities allows viewers all over the country to access a wide variety of programs and channels that meet their individual needs and desires. By the early s, cable television had reached nearly half the homes in the United States.
Today, U. Some cable systems even let you make telephone calls and receive new programming technologies! In this article, we'll show you how cable television brings you so much information and such a wide range of programs, from educational to inspirational to just plain odd. The earliest cable systems were, in effect, strategically placed antennas with very long cables connecting them to subscribers' television sets. Because the signal from the antenna became weaker as it traveled through the length of cable, cable providers had to insert amplifiers at regular intervals to boost the strength of the signal and make it acceptable for viewing.
According to Bill Wall, technical director for subscriber networks at Scientific-Atlanta , a leading maker of equipment for cable television systems, limitations in these amplifiers were a significant issue for cable system designers in the next three decades.