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DMDM i. Phosphothreonine Combined sources Manual assertion inferred from combination of experimental and computational evidence i Ref. Phosphoserine Combined sources Manual assertion inferred from combination of experimental and computational evidence i Ref.

N6-acetyllysine Combined sources Manual assertion inferred from combination of experimental and computational evidence i Ref. Phosphoserine; by PLK1 Combined sources Manual assertion inferred from combination of experimental and computational evidence i Ref. Phosphotyrosine Combined sources Manual assertion inferred from combination of experimental and computational evidence i Ref. Phosphoserine; alternate Combined sources Manual assertion inferred from combination of experimental and computational evidence i Ref.

Phosphothreonine; by CDK1 Combined sources Manual assertion inferred from combination of experimental and computational evidence i Ref. CPTAC i. Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics More EPD i. MassIVE i. MaxQB i. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life More PaxDb i.

PeptideAtlas More PeptideAtlas i. PRIDE i. ProteomicsDB human proteome resource More ProteomicsDB i. CarbonylDB database of protein carbonylation sites More CarbonylDB i. PhosphoSitePlus i. SwissPalm database of S-palmitoylation events More SwissPalm i. Bgee i. ENSG Expressed in organ s , highest expression level in myometrium.

ExpressionAtlas i. Q baseline and differential. Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator More Genevisible i. Human Protein Atlas More HPA i. BioGrid i. CORUM i. Database of interacting proteins More DIP i. ELM i. Protein interaction database and analysis system More IntAct i. Molecular INTeraction database More MINT i. SMR i. Database of comparative protein structure models More ModBase i. Membrane-binding domain 1 1 Publication Manual assertion based on experiment in i Ref. Tubulin-binding domain 2 Publications Manual assertion based on experiment in i Ref.

Membrane-binding domain 2 1 Publication Manual assertion based on experiment in i Ref. Tankyrase-binding domain 1 Publication Manual assertion based on experiment in i Ref. Nuclear localization signal 2 Publications Manual assertion based on experiment in i Ref.

Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies - Biology - Khan Academy

Ensembl GeneTree More GeneTree i. InParanoid i. OMA i. Database of Orthologous Groups More OrthoDB i. Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies More PhylomeDB i. TreeFam database of animal gene trees More TreeFam i. Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites More InterPro i. Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1.

There are more potential isoforms Show all. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs Ensembl. The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting.

Missing in isoform 5. Missing in isoform 2. Z mRNA No translation available. CCDS i. Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource More PIR i. RefSeq i. Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project More Ensembl i. GeneID i. KEGG i. UCSC genome browser More UCSC i. Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology. PDBj i Links Updated. DNASU i. Comparative Toxicogenomics Database More CTD i. GeneCards: human genes, protein and diseases More GeneCards i.

GenAtlas: human gene database More GenAtlas i. ChiTaRS i. NUMA1 human.

The Central Apparatus of Cilia and Eukaryotic Flagella

The Gene Wiki collection of pages on human genes and proteins More GeneWiki i. GenomeRNAi i. Pharos More Pharos i. Protein Ontology More PRO i. ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins More ProtoNet i. During cell division, DNA contracts and folds to form distinct structures called chromosomes. The chromosomes are formed at the start of cell division.

The genetic material of eukaryotic organisms is separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane whereas the genetic material of prokaryotic organisms like bacteria is in direct contact with the cytoplasm. All mitochondrial DNA in humans is derived from the mother's side. A mitochondrion is a membrane bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

This organelle generates the cell's supply of chemical energy by releasing energy stored in molecules from food and using it to produce ATP adenosine triphosphate. ATP is a special type of "energy carrying" molecule. Mitochondria contain two phospholipid bilayers: there is an outer membrane, and an inner membrane.

The inner membrane contains many folds called cristae which contain specialised membrane proteins that enable the mitochondria to synthesise ATP. Inside the inner membrane is a jelly-like matrix. Listed from the outermost layer to the innermost compartment, the compartments of the mitochondrion, are:. In Life Sciences it is important to note that whenever a structure has an increased surface area, there is an increase in the functioning of that structure. The endoplasmic reticulum ER is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells only.

The ER has a double membrane consisting of a network of hollow tubes, flattened sheets, and round sacs.

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These flattened, hollow folds and sacs are called cisternae. The ER is located in the cytoplasm and is connected to the nuclear envelope. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum: smooth and rough ER. Smooth ER : does not have any ribosomes attached. It is involved in the synthesis of lipids, including oils, phospholipids and steroids.


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It is also responsible for metabolism of carbohydrates, regulation of calcium concentration and detoxification of drugs. Rough ER : is covered with ribosomes giving the endoplasmic reticulum its rough appearance. It is responsible for protein synthesis and plays a role in membrane production. The folds present in the membrane increase the surface area allowing more ribosomes to be present on the ER, thereby allowing greater protein production. Ribosomes are composed of RNA and protein.

They occur in the cytoplasm and are the sites where protein synthesis occurs. Ribosomes may occur singly in the cytoplasm or in groups or may be attached to the endoplasmic reticulum thus forming the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes are important for protein production. Together with a structure known as messenger RNA a type of nucleic acid ribosomes form a structure known as a polyribosome which is important in protein synthesis. Figure 2. The Golgi body is found near the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. The Golgi body consists of a stack of flat membrane-bound sacs called cisternae.

The cisternae within the Golgi body consist of enzymes which modify the packaged products of the Golgi body proteins. The Golgi body was discovered by the Italian physician Camillo Golgi. It was one of the first organelles to be discovered and described in detail because it's large size made it easier to observe. It is important for proteins to be transported from where they are synthesised to where they are required in the cell.

Structure and Function of the Genetic Apparatus

The organelle responsible for this is the Golgi Body. The Golgi body is the sorting organelle of the cell. Proteins are transported from the rough endoplasmic reticulum RER to the Golgi. In the Golgi, proteins are modified and packaged into vesicle. The Golgi body therefore receives proteins made in one location in the cell and transfers these to another location within the cell where they are required.

For this reason the Golgi body can be considered to be the 'post office' of the cell.


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Vesicles are small, membrane-bound spherical sacs which facilitate the metabolism, transport and storage of molecules. Many vesicles are made in the Golgi body and the endoplasmic reticulum, or are made from parts of the cell membrane. Vesicles can be classified according to their contents and function. Transport vesicles transport molecules within the cell.

Lysosomes are formed by the Golgi body and contain powerful digestive enzymes that can potentially digest the cell. Lysosomes are formed by the Golgi body or the endoplasmic reticulum. These powerful enzymes can digest cell structures and food molecules such as carbohydrates and proteins. Lysosomes are abundant in animal cells that ingest food through food vacuoles. When a cell dies, the lysosome releases its enzymes and digests the cell. Vacuoles are membrane-bound, fluid-filled organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of most plant cells, but are very small or completely absent from animal cells.

Plant cells generally have one large vacuole that takes up most of the cell's volume. A selectively permeable membrane called the tonoplast , surround the vacuole. The vacuole contains cell sap which is a liquid consisting of water, mineral salts, sugars and amino acids. The vacuole plays an important role in digestion and excretion of cellular waste and storage of water and organic and inorganic substances.

The vacuole takes in and releases water by osmosis in response to changes in the cytoplasm, as well as in the environment around the cell.