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Monna, F. Pb isotopes as a reliable marker of early mining and smelting in the Northern Harz province Lower Saxony, Germany. Geochemical Explor. Bird, G. Pb isotope evidence for contaminant-metal dispersal in an international river system: The lower Danube catchment, Eastern Europe. Geochemistry 25 , — Farmer, J. Stable lead isotope record of lead pollution in Loch Lomond sediments since A. Bindler, R. Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy.

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Testing for multivariate normality via univariate tests: A case study using lead isotope ratio data. Sayre, E. Stable lead isotope studies of Black Sea Anatolian ore sources and related Bronze Age and Phrygian artefacts from nearby archaeological sites. Appendix: New central Taurus ore data. Archaeometry 43 , 77— Korkmaz, S. MVN: An R package for assessing multivariate normality. Combining sources in stable isotope mixing models: alternative methods. Best practices for use of stable isotope mixing models in food web studies.

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What are Isotopes?

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The Discovery of Isotopes : A Complete Compilation by Michael Thoennessen (2016, Hardcover)

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We would like to thank Northumbria University for J. We also thank two anonymous reviewers, who helped greatly to improve the manuscript. All authors reviewed the manuscript. Correspondence to Jack Longman. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Advanced search. Skip to main content. Subjects Environmental impact Geochemistry Palaeoclimate. Abstract Lead Pb isotopes provide valuable insights into the origin of Pb within a sample, typically allowing for reliable fingerprinting of their source. Introduction Lead Pb , a toxic, non-essential metal for life, has been an important commodity in our technological development 1 and one of the most persistent anthropogenic pollutants through time 2 , 3.

1. Introduction

Figure 1. Full size image. Materials and Methods Mixing Models As the focus of the study is on the application of complex mixing models to Pb isotopes from bulk sediment samples and artefacts, we do not outline the theory behind simple binary, or ternary mixing approaches 30 , 37 , Table 1 Univariate normality tests for all ore bodies used to construct models in this work. Full size table. Table 2 Multivariate normality MVN tests results for each ore body mentioned in this work. Table 4 Model output from theoretical example 2, indicating output after grouping a posteriori. Results and Discussion Example 1: Pre-Anthropogenic Dust Sourcing Due to the prevalence of anthropogenic Pb in the biogeochemical system since the inception of metallurgy, Pb isotopes are an imperfect tracer of natural fluxes during the recent past Figure 2.

Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Conclusions Bayesian mixing models, as developed for food-web studies, may be applied to work focussing on understanding sources of pollution as documented by Pb isotope analyses. References 1. Article Google Scholar 2. Article PubMed Google Scholar 5. Google Scholar 6. Article Google Scholar 9. Article PubMed Google Scholar Article Google Scholar Google Scholar Acknowledgements We would like to thank Northumbria University for J.

Ethics declarations Competing Interests The authors declare no competing interests. Additional information Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Electronic supplementary material Supplementary Information.

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About this article. Each chapter contains tables listing the first authors of the first publication as well as details about the production and detection methods used. At the end, a comprehensive table lists all isotopes sorted by elements. The work re-evaluates all prior assignments judging them with a uniform set of criteria. In addition, the author includes over new isotopes which have been discovered since the articles published.

This book is a source of information for researchers as well as enthusiastic laymen alike. The phrasing is well understandable also for non-experts. This makes the book easy to read, even thrilling. I have to confess that parts of the manuscript I was even reading as an evening lecture in the bed, so exciting was the history of isotope discoveries. He is involved in the Discovery of Nuclides Project, a literature search to document the discovery of all isotopes, started in and published in a series of papers in the journal Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables.

He has been a Fellow of the American Physical Society since The diagrams, pictures, color plates, and graphs are all very useful in understanding the work of innumerable physicists, chemists, and engineers over the course of many decades. Graduate students, researchers, and faculty; professionals. Login Join User. IT Certification Mathematics Physics. This book describes the exciting discovery of every isotope observed on earth to date, which currently numbers some The discoveries are arranged in chapters according to the observation techniques or production methods.

Each chapter contains tables listing the first authors of the first publication as well as details about the production and detection methods used.