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Our success has been achieved through creativity, commitment and the ability to generate enthusiasm. The wishes and emotions of our customers are the guiding principles behind our every action. To be the Ultimate House of Luxury , defining style and creating desire, now and forever. Besides integrity, sustainability and mutual appreciation, our mission statement is the basis for all our business activities. It underscores our shared philosophy and is measure for dealing with each other — with the worldwide employees, business partners and customers.

Furthermore it lays the foundation for a sustainable and successful business development. As a result, we are committed to not only minimizing our impacts as a business but also using our voice and actions to positively affect communities and protect the planet. Maintaining a global viewpoint, we are dedicated to supplying products of the highest quality , yet at a reasonable price for worldwide customer satisfaction. Invent the next industrial era, to build, move, power and cure the world. We strive to be the global leader in the sporting goods industry with brands built on a passion for sports and a sporting lifestyle.

Uber is evolving the way the world moves. By seamlessly connecting riders to drivers through our apps, we make cities more accessible, opening up more possibilities for riders and more business for drivers. Our goal when we created Tesla a decade ago was the same as it is today: to accelerate the advent of sustainable transport by bringing compelling mass market electric cars to market as soon as possible. To deliver information on the people, ideas and technologies changing the world to our community of affluent business decision makers.

The eight essentials of innovation

To help humanity thrive by enabling all teams to work together effortlessly. To enhance society by creating , collecting and distributing high-quality news and information. To enable people and businesses throughout the world to realize their full potential. Shape the future of the Internet by creating unprecedented value and opportunity for our customers, employees, investors, and ecosystem partners.

To be the catalyst in communities of customers, contributors, and partners creating better technology the open source way. To move the web forward and give web designers and developers the best tools and services in the world. Apple designs Macs , the best personal computers in the world, along with OS X, iLife, iWork and professional software. Apple leads the digital music revolution with its iPods and iTunes online store. Apple has reinvented the mobile phone with its revolutionary iPhone and App Store , and is defining the future of mobile media and computing devices with iPad.

Becoming the best global entertainment distribution service. Licensing entertainment content around the world. Creating markets that are accessible to film makers. Helping content creators around the world to find a global audience. The mission of Dropbox is to simplify life for people around the world. For so long, people thought Airbnb was about renting houses. You see, a house is just a space, but a home is where you belong. And what makes this global community so special is that for the very first time, you can belong anywhere.

That is the idea at the core of our company: belonging. We have one mission : To empower you to make the most of your money, so you can live better. Over 23 years later, our devotion to seeking out the very best ingredients we can— raised with respect for animals, farmers, and the environment —remains at the core of our commitment to Food With Integrity.

To make the world Inbound.

We want to transform how organizations attract, engage and delight their customers. Our mission is to reconnect people through transportation and bring communities together. We believe in quality craftsmanship without the gimmicks. We work with the best to get the best. And then we sell the best, for exactly the price it should cost. We support American manufacturing.

All of our mattresses are designed and crafted in the U. We provide these with a dedication to the highest quality of customer satisfaction delivered with a sense of warmth, friendliness, fun, individual pride, and company spirit. Our mission statement is simple, yet the foundation of everything we do here at Virgin Atlantic Airways… to embrace the human spirit and let it fly.

At HP, our mission is to deliver seamless, secure, context-aware experiences for a connected world. Provide our customers with the next generation of productivity gains and customer experience innovation through our deep knowledge of the changing global consumer and technology. We deliver innovative technology and services that make businesses better through a powerful combination of customer knowledge, inspired thinking and attentive associates. In an ever-changing world Systemax continually evolves to meet and exceed market demands; With a smile.

We understand our suppliers and customers and build long term relationships based on trust, integrity and the relentless pursuit of excellence. Imation will: Utilize customer insights to build a world-class portfolio of quality digital storage products, audio and video electronics, and accessories. Extend our category leadership in key markets through our powerful global distribution network. Focus our resources on profitable growth areas. Increase the value of our brands and demonstrate return on marketing investments.

Maintain an uncompromising commitment to strong execution. Lead with the highest ethical standards , demonstrating good citizenship in all we do. We over engineer each product to dominate its respective market and perform flawlessly in the field. We are committed to the business principle of incorporating quality assurance functions into our daily activities in the distribution, movement, sale, assembly and rebuilding of Fuser Assembly, formatter boards, printing heads and other spare parts.

Our mission is to provide cost-effective products with reliable quality, quick lead-time and good after-sale service to our customers. With commitment to price and quality, our skilled engineers are engaged in advancing down cost solution and the technicians make full inspection on all our products before shipment. Founded in , Apple is a technology company that is recognized worldwide for its innovative work in Mac personal computers ; the iOS and OS X systems software ; the iPod digital music players and mobile phones.

The company has a global market that includes individuals, businesses, and governments. Concurrent Computer Corporation is a technology company that provides software and hardware for companies in the media industry. Cray Inc. Omnicell, Inc. Founded in the early s, Silicon Graphics International Corp is a technology company specializing in the manufacture of high performance supercomputers and sytems that are used by governments, banks, movie makers and various other industries globally.

Super Micro Computer, Inc. XRS Corporation was founded in and is a technology company specializing in creating technologies that make it easy to effectively manage the North American trucking business. Our mission is to be the trusted technology and capacity provider of the global logic IC industry for years to come. To offer strategic independence to our partners worldwide as a profitable and viable broad-range semiconductor supplier.

Becoming the leading designer and integrator of innovative, tailored technology solutions that empower people to push the boundaries of what is possible. Our mission is to relentlessly strive to provide IC Solutions to meet the ever changing demands of Smart Entertainment. The mission of Amkor Technology is to be the trusted global provider of reliable assembly and test manufacturing services and innovative solutions to semiconductor and microelectronics companies using advanced technology developed through close collaboration with our customers and other supply chain partners.

Our mission is to invest in companies that provide a window on technologies that will push the semiconductor, display, solar PV, and related industries beyond the cutting edge. We are committed to comply with international safety, environment and quality standards at all times. With our wide range of technologies and services, we maximize value and minimize risk for our customers and partners.

By integrating technologies and expertise across the solar value chain, we deliver more reliable, dependable, and cost-effective solutions for our customers. FormFactor views a successful business as not just achieving financial results, but also being a good corporate citizen. We hold ourselves accountable for our ethical, social and environmental impact around the world. At GSI Technology, we focus on providing the best value combination of power, speed, density, quality, reliability and delivery in the world.

Our mission is to create semiconductor solutions that enable our customers to develop energy-efficient products thus reducing the need for fuel and therefore reducing harmful emissions. Our mission is to be the best value-added die distributor in the world. Committing our focus on customer needs and demands, representing our suppliers with honesty and integrity.

Our mission is to enable the success of our customers through highly differentiated IC solutions that reduces cost, noise, sizem weight and power and increase IP protection, performance, manufacturability and reliability. Be the preferred global supplier of high technology, consumable materials for thin film deposition while achieving our strategic and financial goals. We will earn recognition and respect for excellence in providing:. Our customers with a quality offering of outstanding value, exemplifying technological and commercial excellence, characterized by innovative products that meet and exceed expectations, using high quality supply chain management systems, are delivered on time, and are supported by courteous friendly, satisfying service plus an ongoing commitment to continuous improvement;.

Our people with challenging, rewarding, enjoyable work experiences, in a safe, healthy environment, where honesty, fair treatment, open communication and cooperative accomplishment are the norm and each person is encouraged and enabled to understand the status of the business and allowed to maximize his or her contribution to and reward from it;.

Our mission is to provide Semiconductor Manufacturing Companies in the Southwest United States with state-of-the-art mechanical tools for back-end Assembly and Test while providing a quality alternative to OEM suppliers. It is the mission of TCG, Inc. Our mission statement is to provide our customers with high quality products and exceptional levels of service. Provide our customers with the best end to end solutions to treat and recycle water at the lowest energy cost. Murray Company is committed to being the most respected, sought after mechanical contractor and engineers , providing value added services while creating successful partnerships with each of our clients.

Our Mission is to transform innovative ideas into long-term value for our customers, employees and shareholders.

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We will transform Cypress from a traditional broad-line semiconductor company to the leading supplier of programmable solutions in systems everywhere. We are committed to be a world-class , precision machine shop. We will do this by providing our customers with product that is exceptional in quality, while maintaining a flexible delivery schedule tailored to their needs. We will value our relationships with our customers and our employees and will continue to adapt and be responsive to their changing needs with honesty and integrity.

The mission of FM Industries is to provide our customers with manufacturing solutions and services that are consistently high in quality, on time and at prices that are competitive. We will emphasize responsiveness and quality of service in all dealings with the customer. Employees: Invest in the human resources of FMI to accomplish our objectives and enhance career opportunities for our employees. Shareholders: Generate sufficient earnings to sustain the growth objectives of FMI and achieve equitable returns for our shareholders.

Community: Act as a good corporate citizen by respecting the environment and supporting activities that contribute to our local community. No one gets up earlier, works harder, or is more dedicated than the solutions team of FM Industries. Our mission is to deliver the best customer driven designs possible , with leading performance and quality while maintaining a highly competitive price. To create value for our customers by identifying and securing manufacturing equipment lines that are match to both their production and technology requirements. EDAX is dedicated to advancing the understanding of materials for the benefit of science and society worldwide.

Our goals are to exceed the expectations of our customers, employees, and stockholders. We offer Innovative solutions to new customer requirements for production automation and IT and the analys of the environment and health. We develop new products and services for our basic markets and on request of our customers. We are only satisfied when you are too. CISC Semiconductor strives to offer its employees a surrounding that combines both, excellent quality of life and prospects to grow within an innovative company operating on an international scale. Our mission is to enable rapid screening of concepts and optimization of downselected designs simulation-based design and processes , thereby accelerating your product development.

Retronix Semiconductor is a fast growing semiconductor equipment support provider. Our mission is to provide engineering services and staffing solutions to our customers, working diligently to exceed their expectations. A warm welcome to our customers. We want to become and be the preferred supplier and partner for end customers and distributors in our major business field.

We make a broad commitment to service quality and make it the focus of our company culture and values. At SunEdison Semiconductor our mission is to provide the highest value products and services to our customers in the semiconductor and solar industries through exceptional quality, technology and service. To be the market leader and preferred partner through dedication to superior service, innovation and engineered solutions. Our mission was to build a business that would grow through building relationships. To ensure this, America Semiconductor only sells through distribution.

We are committed to the establishment of procedures to ensure the promotion, development and maintenance of the highest standards of honesty, integrity and ethical conduct of the addressees in the performance of their daily duties and responsibilities. To deliver the highest level of service to our customers at all times — striving to be their critical partner as we assist them in growing efficient, ubiquitous wireless networks.

SK Telecom creates new value across industrial boundaries by practicing innovation on a daily basis, using its strong business infrastructure and human resources to make a happier and richer world. At TDS, our mission is to provide outstanding communications services to our customers and meet the needs of our shareholders, our people and our communities.

To provide and develop innovative and high quality products, services and solutions which offer the best value to our customers.

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  7. To continuously enhance shareholders value. To provide a better quality of life for our stakeholders. To be the Specialist in the differentiated branded mobile phone market segment. To be the leading motion game publisher in China. As much as technology changes, our goal remains the same: to help our customers create, innovate, design, and build faster and better. We lead transformation through mobility. The potential of the Networked Society lies in transformation through mobility. Transformation in the way people organize their individual lives and carry out vital tasks. Transformation in the way we work, the way we share information, and the way we do business.

    Transformation in the way we consume and the way we create. Comtech Telecommunications Corp. To utilize our people and innovative technology to provide our clients with field marketing services to drive sales and profits. The mission of ROFDA is to promote and support the retailer-owned distribution segment of the food industry with value added programs and services, all in furtherance of servicing independent retail grocers located throughout America.

    Its mission is to deliver long-term value to its customers, partners and shareholders through financial discipline, operational expertise, and technology innovation. This mission infuses everything we do, from our internal operations to how we conduct ourselves in the marketplace and how we communicate and connect with our local and global neighbours.

    Our mission is to help the best consumers find the best service providers and promote happy transactions. Our mission is simple: make technology an asset for your business not a problem. That is unacceptable. We work around your business. We strive to make technology integrate seamlessly with your business so your business can grow. As your technology partner, when your business grows ours will grow with you, therefore, we will work hand in hand with you to support your growth.

    To be the providers of I. The strategies evolved should be economical, efficient, durable, flexible and allow the organisations to respond rapidly to both market and customer needs. SpaceDev was founded with the vision of producing innovative and affordable space solutions to enable humanity to explore and develop space through practical and profitable steps. To realize this vision, we are developing evolutionary building blocks — starting with affordable mircrosatellites and their associated subsystems , and safe affordable propulsion and launch systems.

    GT brings fifteen years experience applying advanced digital technologies to complex building projects undertaken by Gehry Partners and other leading architecture and engineering companies. Our clients are firms and building teams interested in moving beyond the limits of drafting and paper driven project management and into 21st century, digitally enabled design and construction practices. Gehry Technologies promotes this transformation of building design and delivery practices through three inter-related Centers of effort: Software Products, Consulting and Services and Research and Education.

    We strive to develop a superior Internet browser for our users through state-of-the-art technology, innovation, leadership and partnerships. MetalSoft is dedicated to delivering the most advanced innovation and technology to the sheet metal fabrication industry. Our vision is to build a bridge between humans and machines through software technology. We believe that effective communication between humans and machines is the key to the future of the manufacturing industry. To implement this vision, MetalSoft has built a global research and development network that extends throughout the U.

    True to our Engineering roots, MetalSoft maintains an innovation-centric corporate culture designed to promote and develop the creativity of each employee and maximize our ability to meet the needs of the fast-changing sheet metal fabrication industry. Our mission is: to deliver the best possible reliable software solutions to help our clients improve IT efficiency and business profitability. We will continually communicate with, and learn from our Customers, in order to improve our products and services. To connect people with their world , everywhere they live and work, and do it better than anyone else.

    The 21st century is sure to bring more innovation, new services and newer technology, thus new products and services to sell. Avnet will continue to shape and lead the markets in which it chooses to compete. We strive to build long-term client relationships based on mutual trust and respect. To strengthen and grow our leadership position by providing storage products across a range of market segments , including desktop computers, consumer electronics, midline and nearline storage systems, and high-performance servers.

    Through computing innovation, we push the boundaries of smart and connected technology to make amazing experiences possible for every person on earth. We help you simplify your IT environment so that you can free up money, time, and resources to invest in innovation. We do this by providing a comprehensive and fully integrated stack of cloud applications, platform services, and engineered systems. To empower creators to make their best work and get it in front of the audience they deserve,. To give everyone the power to create and share ideas and information instantly, without barriers.

    To enterprise as many children as we can and inspire them to start their entrepreneurial journeys. Our mission is global transformation through ethical relationships with small-scale farmers, and an integral sustainability orientation at every point on the supply chain. We believe that every child should have access to an exceptional, personalized education that enables them to be happy and successful in an ever-changing world. We foster sustainable economic growth and human development by connecting people with actionable information from farmers to corporate and national policy makers. We are dedicated to bringing you the freshest fish, meats, and produce with the greatest consciousness to marine stewardship, sustainability, and the environment.

    Our mission is to serve our clients by creating high-performance buildings that are cost-effective, efficient, and sustainable. Better World Books is a global bookstore that harnesses the power of capitalism to bring literacy and opportunity to people around the world. Our mission is to create vibrant cafes that reflect, improve, and inspire our communities. Our mission is to inspire and empower people to lead the way to a renewably powered future.

    To help social enterprises and charities raise the funding and support they need. Our mission is to provide talented individuals with meaningful pro bono experiences in order to build capacity for social good organizations. Our mission is to break the misconception that one needs thorough knowledge of art in order to fully enjoy and appreciate it.

    Our mission is to help all companies harness the power of business to create positive social and environmental change. To enhance the financial wellness of our clients in a socially responsible manner by bringing to bear our years of experience, knowledge and integrity. To help support the transition of 1, brands from the old economy to the new economy by To remove the stigma around menstruation and to change the experience from a monthly nuisance to a monthly opportunity for self-care, self-love, and good karma. We envision a world made better by travel and travel made richer by connection.

    Couchsurfers share their lives with the people they encounter, fostering cultural exchange and mutual respect.

    Wealth from knowledge : studies of innovation in industry

    To foster access to sustainability and corporate social responsibility CSR information. We aim to be an engine of transparency that encourages more consistent and actionable disclosure from all types of organizations. To assist our clients achieve optimal organizational performance through integration of employee safety, health and well-being. Dimensions strives to make the workplace a better place. To ensure that every student can achieve his or her potential irrespective of gender or ethnicity, where they live or what their parents do.

    To offer the purest, most elemental ingredients and organic herbs in natural healing products that are good for people and good for the earth. Our mission at Essential Living foods is to improve the health of the planet, its people, and their communities. Our mission is to reimagine commerce in ways that build a more fulfilling and lasting world. To empower people to create a better way to eat , by creating farm-to-neighborhood access to fresh food, benefiting local farmers and bypassing supermarkets.

    Father Nature is a landscape gardening and horticultural organisation with soul. Feronia Forests is dedicated to finding smart ways to nurture, improve, and conserve forestland for future generations. Found My Animal promotes animal adoption in a very direct way: let your pet wear your values. By encouraging rescue over purchase, we support animal welfare by asking pets and their owners to help deliver our simple, important message. To play an integral role in the entrepreneurship experience of Canadians by providing financing, mentoring and tools that will help them build sustainable businesses and create value.

    GINA is a UK social enterprise offering unparalleled opportunities for people affected by rape and sexual abuse to express themselves in a way that promotes freedom of choice through our unique products and events. We exist to improve the quality of life in our communities. We do this by serving and delighting our customers, giving time and profits to our community, growing employees and helping them realize their full potential, and leading others by inspiring them to give, serve, and grow.

    To provide high quality sustainable menstrual products and empower women by positively transforming the experience of menstruation.

    Centre for Science, Technology & Innovation Policy

    To accelerate the flow of capital to enterprises that create innovative, market-based solutions to inequality, poverty, and other social problems and in doing so amplify their total impact. Green City Growers transforms unused space into thriving urban farms , providing our clients with immediate access to nutritious food, while revitalizing city landscapes and inspiring self-sufficiency.

    To be the best small company in America by empowering customers to save money and move to clean energy sources. Greyston is a force for personal transformation and community economic renewal. We operate a profitable business, baking high quality products with a commitment to customer satisfaction. Grounded in a philosophy that we call PathMaking , we create jobs and provide integrated programs for individuals and their families to move forward on their path to self-sufficiency. To transform waste glass into something beautiful while taking care of our employees and the planet at the same time.

    The Mamma Chia Mission is to share the magic of chia and lead in its renaissance. We are dedicated to offering the highest quality organic chia-based foods and beverages that provide vitality, energy and strength. Mamma Chia is a conscious and sustainable company that honors and uplifts both the soul of humanity and the soul of the planet. Mightybytes is a creative firm committed to creating positive environmental and social change while providing unparalleled support to our clients.

    Our mission is to facilitate change to transform the way companies prioritize and take action to become socially and environmentally responsible. We help people enjoy the benefits of self-propelled wilderness-oriented recreation. To overcome death and disease resulting from the consumption of contaminated water by providing safe, clean water to those in need around the world. Our mission is to improve the lives of all we touch by creating meaningful work; minimizing use of resources while maximizing the potential of our communities; and delivering sustainable financial profit to fund this mission.

    To bring the transformative power of play to youth living in disadvantaged communities worldwide. Our company seeks to bridge the worlds of plastics packaging design, manufacturing, reuse, recycling, and sustainability. Our mission is to provide unique, sophisticated design solutions while maintaining the utmost attention to detail. We strive to provide exemplary customer service and build strong, lasting relationships with our clients. And we mean all little ones.

    We make shopping for quality, healthy, and sustainable groceries simple and easy. The 21st century will see dramatic retooling of the ways we live together on the planet. Renewal Funds invests in change by supporting businesses at the forefront of social and environmental innovation. We are passionate about creating snacks that taste incredible and that your family can enjoy without guilt or fear. To provide people with the choice to invest their money in companies that value social and environmental responsibility alongside profitability.

    To improve life for everyone who drinks water, with sustainable, plant-based filters that make water healthy and delicious, beautiful carafes and pitchers, and the convenient Filters by Mail service. To create exceptional products that are affordable for people and good for the planet. Our mission is to help nonprofits utilize the salesforce platform to extend their reach and communicate their impact. To provide products that are the highest quality, healthy, and environmentally friendly to parents throughout the world. We strive to empower our employees and customers with the knowledge necessary to make a positive impact on the planet through natural parenting.

    Our mission is to reach out to all women , and for all women, to enhance their role in their own lives, in their local communities, in business and in the wider world. We feel it is imperative to reconnect people to each other and to the earth. We hope that we, as a company, can be the change we wish to see in the world. To create an online community that harnesses the collective efforts of our members committed to solving the problem of material waste. Making learning global and ensuring that every student is prepared to succeed in our interconnected world.

    Vital Consult has a passion and a determination to see humanity and the environment benefit from our economy by developing sustainable innovative practices for the future. We empower the farmers of the 21st century with sustainable solutions to grow consciously. To improve the livelihoods of coffee-dependent communities with a wize solution for farmers and consumers alike.

    To cultivate savvy women who positively impact their companies, community and our society. To make environmental progress and sustainability accessible to businesses, nonprofits and individuals through online storytelling, community building, business partnerships and fundraising.

    Our crowdfunding platform and advisors inspire, educate and prepare our clients to raise money for their meaningful green endeavors. Provide a global trading platform where practically anyone can trade practically anything. Greenpeace is an independent campaigning organisation, which uses non-violent , creative confrontation to expose global environmental problems, and to force the solutions which are essential to a green and peaceful future.

    To prevent and alleviate human suffering in the face of emergencies by mobilizing the power of volunteers and the generosity of donors. To help people worldwide where the need is greatest, delivering emergency medical aid to people affected by conflict, epidemics, disasters or exclusion from health care. To collect, preserve, study, exhibit, and stimulate appreciation for and advance knowledge of works of art that collectively represent the broadest spectrum of human achievement at the highest level of quality, all in the service of the public and in accordance with the highest professional standards.

    To inspire lifelong learning, advance knowledge, and strengthen our communities. These metrics, which rely on population and publications data that are available for most countries over time, allow the characterization of some key features of trends in national scientific enterprise. The temporal productivity and indigeneity when compared across other countries and regions can serve as indicators of strength or fragility in the national research ecosystems, and the trends in specialty can allow regional policy makers to assess the extent to which the areas of focus of research align or not align with regional priorities.

    Several countries in the region—facing mounting socio-economic challenges with rapidly increasing populations and declining oil reserves—are seeking to advance their research and innovation capabilities [ 9 , 10 ]. Egypt launched the Decade for Science and Technology —16 to strengthen national science and technology. The oil-dependent economies of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates UAE have poured billions of dollars since the late s in establishing new universities, creating technology parks, and actively recruiting top researchers around the globe to relocate to the region, as part of efforts for future economic diversification and expansion Sections A and B in S1 File.

    Current data shows that the number of annual scientific publications in the region has risen Figure A in Section B in S1 File. However, there is a lack of knowledge about how the regional trends compare in an international context and what if any insights maybe useful for the global scientific community. Here we analyze three interconnected questions utilizing newly available data and new indicators: 1 How has national research productivity evolved in MENA and how does it compare with other countries?

    We investigate these questions of productivity, geography, and disciplinary focus in scientific activities in 17 countries of the MENA region Morocco, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Sudan, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, and Iraq between and using publications as a partial indicator of scientific output and conducting an empirical analysis of over 9.

    The quantitative long time-series analysis—which has not been previously conducted for the region or for comparison purposes—allowed for characterizing the emergent trends. Additionally, we compared the MENA region with a group of seven carefully selected countries: Turkey a newly industrializing and emerging economy, geographically and historically connected with MENA , Norway an industrialized, European welfare economy with extensive North Sea oil reserves , South Korea an industrialized East Asian economy with consistently one of the highest economic growth rates , Singapore a trade-oriented economy with strong focus on education and research , Australia one of the top 20 economies with extensive mining and agricultural sectors , and China a new global power in manufacturing with increasing scientific research.

    We also included the US to provide comparison with the globally dominant scientific enterprise. While the outputs of scientific activities go beyond published papers, bibliometric analysis nevertheless allows for comparisons and quantitative measurements of the system that are traceable over time.

    The issue of quality of the research output is critical and is an important part of assessing national scientific impact [ 11 ]. However, here we focus on quantity noting that for countries that are trying to ramp up their research system, the quantity of peer-reviewed scientific publications in English provides a useful metric of progress given the very recent and major efforts to expand in this area. Citations have their own limitations [ 12 ]. Furthermore, the Web of Science citation data does not capture all the relevant citations for decision makers in the region, which include policy documents and reports.

    Our quantitative analysis was directed and the results were interpreted in light of over 80 semi-structured interviews that we conducted with faculty, senior administrators including university presidents and college deans and technology firm executives during field visits to Morocco, Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and UAE from — Section A in S1 File. Our on-site discussions with researchers in the region serve as an important distinguishing factor of this work and informed both our selection and development of quantitative indicators and the interpretation of the quantitative results.

    In the following sections we provide a description of the data collection method, a definition and discussion of the metrics we used in this work, and a discussion of key trends at national and regional level that emerge from our analysis along with implications for policy and further research. The search queries were performed during through , therefore due to the consistent growth of journals indexed in the database, it is likely that there may be some differences in exact publication counts for queries executed at a later time.

    The focus of our work was on analyzing total scientific publications in nations that have not had significant research activities in the recent past. Therefore, we chose the Science Citation Index-Expanded rather than the more widely used Science Citation Index since it has wider coverage although of varying journal quality. We included full journal articles see Table C in S1 File only and did not account for letters, reviews, conference papers, books or other publications.

    The yearly population data was obtained from the Data Bank web portal of the World Bank. It was used for computing per capita annual publications for each country the population data used for is shown in Table B in S1 File. For rest of the countries with larger number of publications , we estimated indigeneity using statistical sampling of records for each year and analyzing address information of reprint authors using our text parsing routines coded in Matlab TM.

    The robustness of the results was evaluated and is provided in detail for each country Table D in S1 File. We obtained subject area data for each country by analyzing the country results in multi- year intervals —85, —90, —95, —, —, —, and — with research area analysis in Web of Science. This provides count of papers for each area. It should be noted that a paper maybe assigned multiple subject areas e.

    We conducted this search for areas that we determined to be relevant leaving out areas from social sciences such as economics and business management. The subject areas were consolidated into 15 categories Table A in S1 File based on results reported in [ 13 ], wherein a systematic decomposition of a journal-journal citation matrix was used to identify inter-connected disciplines. We used those results with some modifications for engineering disciplines relevant for the regional economies. The total publications for a country i in year t was defined as: 1. The whole-counting approach was used.

    If a publication had three co-authors, and one of the co-authors had an address in Kuwait, the publication would be included as a full count for Kuwait. This approach provided an upper limit accounting of the publications for each country. The attribution for each country was made only on the basis of address information, and the citizenship or national origin of authors was not taken into account. The global share of each country was computed for each year t as: 2. Productivity defined as per capita scientific publications is an important measure when considering training and producing researchers [ 1 ].

    P i t is population of country i in year t. This ratio of total publications to total population has been used historically [ 1 — 2 ]. Ideally, the number of total scientists and researchers should be used instead of total population of a country. The annual data of total researchers in each MENA country over the last thirty years, however, is not available. Given this limitation, the total population serves as a proxy variable for determining productivity.

    This allowed for a common basis of comparison with other countries outside the region, however, it also includes the structural differences in the fraction of population devoted to research. The issue of location is paramount when accounting for national scientific research activity—particularly when the aim is to investigate the development of local scientific capacity. Prior research has shown that knowledge flows measured by patent citations tend to stay geographically localized due to the positive influence of spatial proximity on knowledge sharing and interpersonal relationships [ 16 ].

    In the age of globalization, national systems of innovation can become more relevant, not less [ 17 ], as domestic institutions shaped by policy improve competitiveness through building absorptive and innovative capacity and attracting and leveraging resources that are increasingly global. It has been shown that while simple knowledge diffuses equally to close and distant actors, socially proximate recipients have the greatest advantage over distant actors for knowledge of moderate complexity [ 18 ], and co-location is also important for firm to university collaborations [ 19 ].

    Trends in scientific research teams [ 20 ], and international collaboration patterns have been investigated extensively, with results showing a growing fraction of scientific research being undertaken by teams of collaborators across different universities [ 21 ] and from multiple countries [ 22 ]. This research did not investigate differences that may arise by country. In recognition of the globalization trends, and with the aim of getting insights relevant for domestic capacity development a question that arose from our interviews , we posed a question of indigeneity— i.

    Our basis of measuring research activities is publications data, and we make an assumption that corresponding authors play a key role in the work reported in a paper. Furthermore, the presence of these researchers in a location will impact effective knowledge transfer, training, mentorship and other activities leading to long-term capacity development. The corresponding author is often fully knowledgeable about the work that is presented in the paper and manages the paper through the peer-review process. She may be the researcher who has done the primary work, or is the senior researcher who has been a central part of the work.

    Our choice of corresponding author allows for striking a balance in the issue of first and last author contributions, where in some fields, the first author represents the researcher who has done the primary work, whereas in some cases the last author is the main driver of the research. It is likely that countries that export high percentages of their educated elites would appear to have less successful educational institutions than those with a less important intellectual diaspora.

    The metric developed here partially captures the level of domestic scientific capacity and also includes the returning diaspora. It, however, precludes the assessment of export of scientific wealth to other countries as a result of migration out of MENA countries. The disciplinary focus—or specialization in specific scientific fields—is an important characteristic frequently used in assessments of national research [ 23 ]. Such characterization is particularly useful in international comparisons where countries with small total shares in global publications may have larger shares in specific areas.

    In past research, it has been found that emerging countries often show sharp patterns of specialization with prominent focus in a few fields whereas scientifically strong as well as scientifically weak countries may show no particular pattern [ 1 ]. In this work, we employ the concept of Revealed Comparative Advantage RCA —used for determining national trade advantage compared to global exports- in the new context of knowledge economies and apply the definition of RCA on publications Section A in S1 File.

    The RCA of publications in different scientific fields has been assessed previously [ 1 ], and relative measures for citations are also used that normalize for country size and global activity [ 23 ]. It thus allows for assessing the disciplinary focus of research output of a country while accounting for global trends in research in particular fields. An advantage in publications is not a sufficient condition for building strategic capacity, and accounting for quantity of publications is a partial measure at best for gauging strength in research.

    However, an examination of relative research foci in a country can provide useful information for understanding national trends.

    Publications prior to 2005

    Given that research outputs are to some extent organic and not fully controlled by policy , decision makers and administrators of national science and education agencies can utilize this metric to identify strategic areas for growth. We conducted semi-structured interviews with students, faculty, senior university administrators including presidents and college deans , technology company executives, and education policy makers in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, and UAE during — In addition, we also made visits to a number of institutions in Morocco, Jordan, Turkey, and Lebanon during — The on-site interviews and discussions informed the analysis we present here.

    As a first step, we determined the share of total publications of each MENA country over time, and found that a few countries have made gains in the last decade Table 1. In , the regional top five countries in global share were Saudi Arabia 0. The development trajectory of the two countries, particularly in the last decade however, has interesting features.

    A turning point arrived in when the number of publications started to increase sharply, a time that coincides with large investments in higher education. The global share of Saudi publications climbed from 0. An Academic Collaboration based in the partner universities. The Gateway Building is no. Venue Map. Information on how to get to St Andrews University and accommodation can be found on the Website. For those travelling by train:. There is a regular bus service, Stagecoach 99 service, every 7 -8 minutes from Leuchars railway station to St Andrews.

    T he largest free car parks can be found just off the Petheram Bridge roundabout, by the university buildings on the A91 into St Andrews from the West. It is about 5 minute walk from there to Purdie Building. Inforamtion on Hotels in St Andrews can be found here. For registration enquiries: contact etp-scotland. Dr Sneh Jain slj2 st-andrews.